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Important Note!!!!: Yeah, despite the wisdom of Mr. Sweiven, I did not work with a friend. So there's probably a missing section somewhere for Latin America (probably social or political, probably during Unit 4 or 5). Anyways, it probably too late for people to look or read this whole thing. Good luck everybody.


Foundations: c. 8000 B.C.E.–600 C.E.Edit

Political (Governments, Laws, Empires, Leaders, Political Philosophies, Ruling Bureaucracies and the means of staffing them, treatment of minority people)


Sub-Saharan Africa: Diverse & decentralized. Bantu- linguistically-based group that most resembles a common cultural source in Sub-Saharan Africa (Swazi, Sotho, Tswana, Shona, Ndebele, Venda, Xhosa, Zulu) Emerged in Niger River Basin (West Central Africa). Began to migrate throughout continent circa 1000 CE. Played greatest role in shaping Africa's cultural, ethnic, & linguistic character. Spread knowledge of agriculture & ironworking to East & South Africa; transformed it to area of sparsely populated hunter-gatherers to farming communities that were densely populated; depended heavily on cattle


1st major civilization in Nubia & Ghana. Nubia became an important trade corridor between north & south. Was settled circa 3000 BC, more advanced societies appeared circa 2500 BC (kingdom of Kush: 1750 BC). Then ruled by New Egyptian Kingdom for 500 yrs.. Then, city of Meroe emerged (400 CE- 400BC); surrounded by three rivers, offered people enough rainfall for irrigated cultivation & nearby wetlands for herds. Also had iron ore (many iron tools) & hardwood timber. Fell in 200 BC because deforestationà topsoil erosion. Ghana- 1st major Sub-Saharan kingdom, 500s. Most famous for gold, became rich when Europe began minting coins in 1200 CE. Exported precious metals (gold, iron, copper) through caravans in Trans-Saharan trade. Ecological & demographic conditions then weakened Ghana, leaving it vulnerable for Muslim conquest.


Europe: Celts from central Europe, north of Danube, begin to migrate circa 500 BC. No written language, but rich oral tradition, skilled in crafts (esp. metallurgy), worshipped many deities. Then, traded with Roman Empire. When that fell, centralizing institutions of Roman rule faced economic decay & political corruption, then destroyed by Germanic (Saxons, Angles, Goths) & Asiatic (Huns, Magyars) barbarians, starting Medieval Period (500-1500 CE). Extreme decentralization: Feudalism & Manorialism. Later on, began to centralize, Holy Roman Empire made by Charlemagne (768-814 CE). Then, England, France, & Germanic Holy Roman Empire formed.


Greek Sparta had rigid, military government; Athens was politically advanced. Were mainly oligarchies (governed by small groups) where elite, rich & powerful families ruled. Athens formed democracy in 508 BC, was at its peak under statesman Pericles (ca 461-429 BC), the most representative government in the entire ancient world. Women & slaves excluded from politics (no voting rights; however, women later gained more freedom to divorce, more economic rights, & greater influence over family financial affairs. Rome was a monarchy. Rome was divided between citizens (Plebian &Patrician) & non-citizens (no civil rights). Roman Republic (two branches of power: Plebian & Patrician; eventually fell & replaced by Roman Empireà ruled by emperors; Octavian= Caesar Augustus, Julius Caesar= grandson, ruled after him). Senate was aristocratic, Assembly, was democratic. The Assembly of Centuries was formed of all members of the army and the Assembly of Tribes was formed of all citizens. This assembly had the right to approve or veto laws and could decide issues of war and peace. Roman Republic fell, giving rise to Roman Empire. The government created the Twelve Tables, which was a set of stone tablets that was Rome’s first attempt to have a code of law. In 529 BC, Justinian created Justinian's Code (laid civil & judicial groundwork, preserved Roman Law & make it easier to understand; laws dealt with legislation of religion, laws against heresy & Judaism, etc; 4 Parts: Codex, Digesta, Institutions, & Novallae. Hellenistic Culture: created by Alexander the Great (son of Phillip II of Macedon) to unite his empire (Greek-Macedonian Kingdom). Roman Empire then split in 395 CE (Western fell in 476 CE, Byzantium flourished until 1492 CE). Was crossroad between Europe & Asia (capital, Constantinople), blended Greek & Roman elements. Hagia Sophia (now an Islamic mosque), & icons of Christian figures were created in Byzantium, & spread to medieval Europe, Middle East, & East Europe (Russia). Past 600 CE, lost territories in North Africa & Middle East to Muslims. Aristotle: Aristotle (384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, teacher, and writer who lived during the classical era of Greece. Aristotle wrote on many different subjects and ideas that indelibly influenced Western philosophy. These items include physics, biology, literature, politics, astronomy, ethics, music, zoology, and psychology. Aristotle was the student of Plato (430-347 BC), and Plato was the student of Socrates (470-399 BC). All three men are known for their widely influential and innovative ideas that would shape many cultures and generations for the next two millenniums. Aristotle also carried on his teachings to his student, Alexander the Great, who consequently became a great leader and warrior. Despite being an avid disciple of his teacher, Aristotle came to reject some of Plato’s ideas about the theory of Forms and Ideas. Unlike Plato, Aristotle believed that philosophers could depend on their own senses to provide accurate information about the universe, and then they would rely on reasoning to sort out its mysteries. Aristotle had many writings on the subject of logic and reasoning that differed intensely from most medieval scholars of his time.


Middle East & North Africa: 5000-2000 BC: Sumerians. Mesopotamia, Hittites appeared around 1700 BCà Assyrians, Babylonians (Nebuchadnezzar), Persians, Hebrews, Phoenicians, & Lydians (currency). Christianity: 100 CE. Achemenid Empire: (623-631) Cyrus, Darius, Xerxes. Slave trade: Mediterranean, Africa, China, Far East, Arabs. Socrates (469-399 BC): fought in the Peloponnesian War, and upon his return, began to consider core philosophical questions, such as distinguishing right and wrong and the true possession of piety. He is also the originator of elenchus, which is best described as modern cross-examination, a technique commonly used in the practice of “courtroom” law. He was suspected of being opposed to the Greek democracy, which, as he believed only the smartest members of the population should make the decisions in the government, may have been true. Since he fought in the war, however, he could not be charged of this illegality, and instead was convicted of impiety and corrupting the youth. He was sentenced to death, and died soon afterward in 399 BC. Mohammed (570-632 CE) founds Islam, which eventually dominates North Africa, Middle East, & other parts in 600s. Founded in Mecca, on Arabian peninsula In 622 CE, he & his followers were driven to Medina (flight known as the hajj, marks beginning of Islamic calendar.) Islam spread rapidly, eventually taking Arab peninsula & much more. After his death, caliphs ("successors" of faith) spread Islam. Destroyed Persian Sassanid Empire & weakened Byzantium, taking some of its territory. By 700s, conquered most of Middle East, North Africa, Spain, Central Asia, & borderlands of India (Pakistan). All Muslim lands were ruled by caliph; Umayyad Caliphate: (661-750 CE) Capital was Damascus, then overthrown by rebellions; Abbasid Caliphate: (750-1258) Capital at Baghdad (Iraq), Golden Age of classical Islamic culture. Was Shiite. Great math & science aptitude, Europeans copied them.


East Asia: Huanghe River Valley Civilization (8000 BC-1700 BC), discovered bronze-working circa 2000 BC; China has Qin (221-260 BC), Han (206 BC- 220 CE), Sui (589- 618 CE), & Tang (618-906 CE) Dynasties. Qin had 1st principal ruler, Shi Huangdi (1st emperor, created Mandate of Heaven); made it into a dictatorial, tightly centralized nation, modernized army (iron weapons, crossbows, cavalry warfare), used forced labor to build many roads & Great Wall. Created concept of strong emperor, importance of strong bureaucracy (became basic institutions for China centuries later). Han had Emperor Wu (140-87 BC); great expansion & created bureaucracies (civil service exams) to limit aristocratic power. Had postal service & tax-collection system, built roads, defensive fortifications (enlarging Great Wall), & canals linking Huanghe & Yangtze. Han collapsed from downturn in agriculture; bandits & outlaws increased, government & leaders became corrupt. Sui reunified China, with many military conquests. Tang forced neighbors (Korea, Vietnam, Tibet, Japan) into being tributary states (had to make monetary payments to Chinese) & traded with them. Silk Road was also created (traded with Mediterranean & Middle East). Fell from peasant rebellions & military disasters, China split into several independent empires & states. Japanà Nara State (300-794 CE, ruled by Yamato family, had contact with China & Korea, greatly influenced in art, architecture, religionà Buddhism, & literature by China) & Heian period (shift of capital to Heian because emperor's family wanted to escape from Buddhist political influence; Tale of Genji, written by Lady Murasaki, shows how people of that time liked aesthetics & how culture thrived. Period was dominated by Fujiwara clan, but then fell from weak leadership)


South Asia: Indus River Valley Civilization (circa 8000 BC- 1900 BC), invaded by light-skinned Aryans (from Persia & Central Asia) in 1500 BC, who conquered dark-skinned native Indians. Developed Sanskrit language for religious, literacy, & intellectual purposes.


South America: In Andes & Peru; civilization developed along Supe River, Peru, circa 2600 BC. Skilled at weaving, pottery, & metallurgy. Heavily urban societies that were socially stratified. Llama was most important domesticated animal. Societies: Chavin (circa 900-250 BC), Moche (circa 200-700 CE), Tiahuanacao & Huari (circa 500-1000 CE), & Chimu (800-1465 CE).


North America & Caribbean: Advanced civilization appeared circa 1200 BC (oldest & most sophisticated in Mexico & Central America). Taino & Karibs (part of Arowak Indians) lived in Caribbean. 1st major society: Olmec (1200-400 BC), on Gulf of Mexico. Written language is still a mystery, art & architecture impacted descendants. Then, Teotihuacan (founded 150-100 BC) came after Olmec; population of 600,000, one of the world's largest cities at the time, existed until 750 CE. Eclipsed by Mayans (250-900 CE). Built pyramids (Chichen Itza), spanned from Guatemala, Honduras, Belize, & Southern Mexico. Independent city-states & rival kingdoms ruled over lands. Last dominant group before being conquered by North: Toltec (968-1156 CE)


In Americas, had Adena (circa 500 BC-250 BC)à Hopewell (100-400 CE)à Mississippian (700-1500 CE). Were loose confederations, but built large urban centers; spread out along Ohio & Mississippi River Valleys, & famous for mound-building (ceremonial & religious). In American Southwest, Anasazi had elaborate cliff homes made of rock & clay, hundreds of feet above desert & canyon floors.


Economic (Trade, Commodities Produced, Labor Systems, Social Hierarchies, agricultural v industrial, rural v urban)


Slave trade: Mediterranean, Africa, China, Far East, Arabs.


Sub Saharan Africa: Export of precious metals (Ghana), many different tribes (Bantu), depended on cattle. Mainly rural, some agricultural


Europe: Traded with Roman Empire (Mediterranean, North Africa, Middle East); had feudalism & manorialism (lords' estates were self-sustaining), was decentralized (king was not as powerful, as a result). Powerful lords controlled large estates with many serfs & peasants; gave them land & protection in exchange for products & crops. Mainly rural, & little industrialization occurred. Hard to go up in society, were self-sustaining. Had slaves, women, & non-citizens, plebeians (bottom) & male citizens & powerful families, patricians (top). Had city-states, & also vast farmlands.


Middle East & North Africa: Traded in Mediterranean Sea & with East; trade between Europe & Asia.


East Asia: Silk Road (Middle East, Mediterranean) & China's tributaries (Korea, Tibet, Manchuria, Japan, Vietnam). Many peasants, but caused rebellions that led to dynastic declines. Many roads, canals, development in government & army. Had few elite, flourished from trade.


South Asia: Traded with China & Middle East. Hierarchy: Brahmins (priests, warriors & political rulers (kshatriyas), commoners (vaishyas), servants & peasants (shudras), & "untouchables"; hard to go up in society


South America: Llamas, weaving, pottery, metallurgy; traded with other kingdoms/tribes


North America & Caribbean: Adena, Hopewell, & Mississippians built mounds; traded with other tribes; rural & agricultural


Religious (Religions, Leaders, Beliefs, Syncretism, Interactions, effects on politics and economy, persecution)


Sub Saharan Africa: Animism, Islam


Europe: Christianity, Paganism (Druidsà priests), Judaism (banned)


Middle East & North Africa:. Under Alexander the Great's Hellenism, Greeks worshipped several gods, but was more worldly & rational than other ancient cultural traditions, because of importance & advancements in science, math, geometry, physics, & astronomy. Islam eventually starts & spreads. Also had Christianity, Judaism, & Zoroastrianism (bookà Avesta).


East Asia: Buddhism (Japan), Daoism (Laozià creator of Daoism, "Book of Change"), ancestor worship


South Asia: Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism


South America: Ancestor worship?


North America & Caribbean: Mayans had large-scale human sacrifice, winners of a game get offered up to gods; also worshipped serpent gods & jaguar deities. Adena, Hopewell, & Mississippians built mounds. Ancestor worship?


Military (technology, wars, leaders, conquests, rise and fall of empires)


Sub Saharan Africa: Kush was conquered & ruled by New Egyptian Kingdom for 500 yrs. Then, city of Meroe fell in 200 BC because deforestationà topsoil erosion. Ghana- 1st major Sub-Saharan kingdom, 500s. Ecological & demographic conditions then weakened Ghana, leaving it vulnerable for Muslim conquest.


Europe: Knights, armed peasants Sparta had rigid, military government; Athens was politically advanced & had great navy. Peloponnesian Wars: Athens vs. Sparta. Eventually, Rome rose. In Rome, army served in Assembly of Centuries. Roman Republic (two branches of power: Plebian & Patrician; eventually fell & replaced by Roman Empireà ruled by emperors; Octavian= Caesar Augustus, Julius Caesar= grandson, ruled after him). Punic Wars (264 BC- 146 BC): Rome vs. Carthage, fought over control of Mediterranean


Middle East & North Africa: Alexander the Greatà Hellenistic CultureàMediterranean. Punic Wars (264 BC- 146 BC): Rome vs. Carthage, fought over control of Mediterranean, Muslims destroy Sassanid Empire & weaken Byzantine, taking territory.


East Asia: Made great weapons from Bronze Age. In Qin, Shi Huangdi modernized army (iron weapons, crossbows, cavalry warfare), conquest of Inner China, Outer China, part of SE Asia (Vietnam), Korea, Manchuria, Inner Mongolia. Han ruled by Emperor Wu. Qin (221-260 BC), Han (206 BC- 220 CE), Sui (589- 618 CE), & Tang (618-906 CE).


South Asia: Aryans conquered & enslaved Dravidians (dark-skinned native Indians). Mauryan Empire (324-184 BC), ruled by Ashoka (great warrior who converted to Buddhism); advocated peace & tolerance, admired for justice & wisdom, famous for creating harmony between Buddhists, Hindus, etc. Fell from outside pressure. Gupta Empire (320-550 BC), mainly Hindu but practiced religious tolerance, fell from outside pressure & remained decentralized until Muslim invasion, later on.


South America: Societies: Chavin (circa 900-250 BC), Moche (circa 200-700 CE), Tiahuanacao & Huari (circa 500-1000 CE), & Chimu (800-1465 CE).


North America & Caribbean: Mayans conquered other peoples & fought with rival kingdoms


Social (treatment of women, art, literature, writing systems, music, dance, marriage, family)


Sub Saharan Africa: Stories passed orally, many shared Bantu language & many tribes


Europe: Women were inferior, many were peasants (on bottom of hierarchy), few lords & rich. Greeks lived in independent city-states, women were treated as social & political inferiors, slavery was common. Phoenicians created 1st true alphabet, adapted by Greeks & Romans later on. Byzantium became center of art & culture


Middle East & North Africa: Women & slaves were inferior, also some non-Muslims were discriminated against


East Asia: "Tale of Genji", by Lady Murasaki (Japan), Confucianism's 5 relationships, women were treated as inferiors. Aristocrats were powerful, but in Han, bureaucracies (civil service exams) were made to limit their power. Had paper, silk, etc., educated few knew how to write.


South Asia: Great blend of languages, ethnicities, & traditions. Hierarchy: Brahmins (priests, warriors & political rulers (kshatriyas), commoners (vaishyas), servants & peasants (shudras), & "untouchables"


South America: Had social stratification


North America & Caribbean: Mayans: priests, farmers, workers, warriors, captive slaves, etc. Adena, Hopewell, & Mississippians traded with each other & other tribes.


Post Classical: 600 C.E.–1450Edit

Political (Governments, Laws, Empires, Leaders, Political Philosophies, Ruling Bureaucracies and the means of staffing them, treatment of minority people)


Sub Saharan Africa: Mansa Munsa (1312-1337 & kingdom of Mali was Muslim; spread through Trans-Saharan trade. Berber: 1st to convert to Islam (1030). Government was systemized under Mansa Munsa (appointed members of royal family to governships). Was under attack in 1400s.


Europe: Feudalism & Manorialism, Catholic Church emerged, knights & noble class emerged. Catholic Church became politically powerful (Pope Gregory VII & Pope Innocent III asserted church power), owned vast amounts of land, & many institutions (ex: writingà Holy Inquisition). Monasticismà Monks & nuns. Scandinavian Vikings from overcrowded Denmark, Sweden, & Norway invaded after 1000 CE, spread from 800s to 1000s to most of coastal Europe & Mediterranean. Also settled Greenland, Iceland, & Canada (Leif Ericson), parts of England, Scotland, Ireland, France & Sicily (established great kingdoms there). Established trade route from Scandinavia to Byzantium, thru Russia (created 1st Russian state). Inadvertently prompted England, Russia, & HRE to centralize to defend against attacks. England: Intertwined with France, two of the most stable states in west. 1066 CE, French-speaking Normans (Viking descendants), led by William the Conqueror, invaded England, defeated Saxon king, & established rule there. William & successors had blood connections & feudal obligations to French royal family, causing 400 yrs confusion & competition in political & lands legitimacy. Developed centralized monarchy (William brought French-style feudalism to England). During 1100's, Henry II created common law (code of law for entire country)à unified court system & concept of jury trials. Checks were also placed upon king's power (King John, Magna Carta, 1215 CE). In 1200s, English nobles found right to form Parliament; eventually became a representative lawmaking body that governed in conjunction with king & assumed an increasingly important position in politics. 1200-1300s: expansion under Edward I & III; English conquered Wales, Scotland, & later Ireland. Frequent territory wars with France; controlled large parts of Aquitaine & parts of Britanny) France: Capetian dynasty (Capetian kings) emerged 900 CE, controlled part of Paris. During High & Late Middle Ages, expanded (despite English interference) & independent spirit of large, wealthy nations (Burgundy, Flanders). Phillip II Augustus (1180-1223) greatly increased French kingdom (beat King John many times). French also defeats England in 100 Year's War (1337-1453, coincided with Black Death & other crisis, caused by political entanglement of English & French royal families, French attempts to regain continental territories controlled by English, & competition over wool trade between Southeast England & Flanders, separated by English Channel), centralizing in process. Charles VII (1429-1461) & Louis XI (1461-1483) gained control over several stubborn, autonomous nations (Burgundy, Flanders). Was strong & centralized. In fights against English, archers made knights obsolete (decline of chivalry). English then established control over most of France. Only in 1420s, Charles VII with help of Joan of Arc drove English out of most of France. War ended, connections between English & French royal families also ended. Holy Roman Empire (HRE): dominated middle of Europe, multicultural monarchy of various German noble families. Founded in 900s, heir of great state founded by Charlemagne in 8th & 9th centuries. Kings were Germanic, but population also consisted of Italians, Hungarians, French, & Slavs; not defined by common nationality/language, but a largely shared & imaginary memory of Romans & religion (Roman Catholicism)à Emperor was supposed to work with Pope to achieve ideal Christendom: a single Catholic community extending throughout Europe (emperor actually competed against instead of with Pope). Was one of the largest states in Medieval Europe; emperor was elected, not hereditary, was chosen from one of several noble clans. Population, because of language & cultural diversity & consisted of many duchies, kingdoms, etc. guarded local privileges & autonomy (not highly centralized). Centralized after 1300's: (although Golden Bull of 1356 affirmed rights of lesser rulers who ruled under emperor), the # of states allowed to take part in election of ruler greatly decreased. Emergence of Habsburg family (Austria) as a force in imperial politics; became one of the most powerful families competing for emperor (1273). In 1438, succeeded in gaining permanent control (ruled until 1918). High centralization was useful against Turks (late 1300s). In Spain, Muslim Moors that invaded (700s) were expelled in Reconquista (11th-12th centuries, leader: El Cid, 11th century) to southern Spain (Granada). In 1492, King Ferdinand & Queen Isabella completely pushed them out & were hostile to non-Christians, banning Islam & Judaism. Increased population growth, urbanization (guilds), less job opportunities, serfs move into cities.



Middle East & North Africa: Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258, Shiite) began to disintegrate (language & ethnically diverse region was difficult to have solid political control & huge wave of nomadic movements in North Africa, Syria, & Iraq also weakened it. Umayyad Caliphate, which ruled from Damascus, succeeded it.




East Asia: China was decentralized (political turmoil after Tang), many feudal states. Conquered by Mongols & centralized under Ming Dynasty. Had strong artistic, literary, & religious pull on Japan, Korea, & Vietnam (eventually became more independent politically & culturally). Song Empire (1200s) succeeded Tang (ruled East China & Yellow River), but reduced in size from wars with Jin & Liao (Mongolia & North China, 916-1121, 1st to make Beijing its capital). Song then hired Jurchens (Liao's northern neighbors) to conquer Liao; however, Jurchens proclaimed their own Empire (Jin) Mongols (under Genghis Khan) attack China 1211, taking Beijing (Jin capital). Died 1227, but sons continued legacy; by 1234, controlled most of North & West China, threatening Song & putting greater pressure on it. During 1260s, Mongol empire grew too large & split into smaller states. Kublai Khan (one of Genghis's grandsons) took China & Southeast Asia. Moved Mongol capital to Beijing, established Yuan Empire (1271-1368); conquered most of China & reunified it as a single country, & greatly expanded it ("Sinified"; failed to take Japan, however). Successful at rebuilding bureaucracy & economy, created government administration to help run country; repaired roads & canals (Grand Canal), new cities, restored Silk Road trade; trade increased. Yuan declined after Kublai Khan's death: population decline from Bubonic plague, & economic decline from population decrease. Ming Dynasty (1368- 1644) followed, led by Zhu Yuanzhang, a rebel leader. Forged alliances with Vietnamese & Korean states, retained & expanded tributary system that Kublai Khan created (tribute states pay emperor). Army was also effective (General Cheng Ho made voyages to Southeast Asia, Indonesia, India, Persian Gulf, & Red Sea). After Ming, exploration ceased.


In Japan, Heian Period declined because of Fujiwara family political & aristocratic intrigueà neglected military responsibilities. In 1100s, warrior clans began to quarrel among themselves & 2 rival claimants for throne appeared: Taira & Minamoto. Taira won first, then overthrown by Minamoto; established Kamakura Shogunate (1185-1333) àcenturies-long feudal period begins, political power decentralized, emperor became more of a figurehead (real authority now rested in shogun). Chivalry & greatly controlled lives of nobles, samurai Bushido code established. Resisted Kublai Khan's invasion through "Divine Wind". Ashikaga Shogunate (1336-1575, started by Go-Daigo's Rebellion) moved capital back to Kyoto; trade & commerce flourished, wealthy merchant class emerged, Zen Buddhism arrived from China & became popular among samurai class (many rituals). Although Ashikaga were nominally in charge of Japan, daimyos & warlords ruled their lands semi-independently, defied shoguns, fought each other. Shogunate slowly becomes more meaningless, & Japan becomes more divided.


Korea had 3 dynasties: Silla (collapsed with Tang), Koryo (invaded my Mongols in 1230), & Yi (1392-1910).




South Asia: Gupta Empire collapsed 550 CE; Muslims invaded borderlands 700s, broke apart India in 1000s. 1022, Muslim army led by Afghan warlords took Punjab & continued taking North India (Aryan). In 1206, took Delhi & established Delhi Sultanate (1206-1520s, was actually part of Abbasid Caliphate until its destruction in 1258). Muslims united Hindus & Buddhists (but still had violence). Territorial peak of sultanate was at 1300s; began to shrink because of invasions from Central Asian warlord Timur. Grew weaker, collapsed in 1520. Southern states (Dravidians) were independent (Tamil kingdoms, Bengal became independent from North 1338, Bahmani kingdomà Muslim, broke away from sultanate 1390, Muslim city of Gujarat became trading center in 1390, Vijayangara Empire à 1336-1556 (controlled Ceylon) & Malibar (esp. coastal trade city of Calicut) city-states formed free Hindu enclaves on Indian coast.


People of Southeast Asiaà skilled bronzeworkers & navigators & immigrated to other islands in Oceania; states included Funan (200-500, Malay peninsula), Chenla (Cambodia), Mon (lower Burma), Burma (500-onward), Thai kingdom (500-onward); most were culturally & economically influenced by India and/or China; traded spices (cinnamon, nutmeg, cloves, pepper) for silk & adopted Hinduism and/or Buddhism & Islam (1000s)


Khmer Empire (Cambodia, 500sà1454), reached peak during Angkor Wat period (889-1454, great capitals at Angkor Wat & Angkor Thom). Angkor rulers were aggressive expansionists (into Khmer state & part of Burma & Malaysia). Influenced by primarily by India, adopted Hinduism & Buddhismà more than 21,000 temples & 300,000 priests; complex & ornate palaces & pagodas, lost to jungle after fall of empire (conquered by Cambodia) & rediscovered in 1861 by French. Srivijayan Empire (500s-1100s), controlled south Indonesian islands, controlled Malay peninsular & sea trade routes that led to Indonesia & Malay peninsula. Influenced by India, primarily Buddhist (built impressive religious structures) & some Hindu. Islam became dominant in 1200s.


Polynesians (originally from Philippines & Indonesia) had great migrations, going as far as Easter Island, New Zealand, & Hawaii. Travelled using canoes.


South America: Andean societies (Chavin, circa 900-200 BC; Nazca, circa 100-800 CE; Moche, 200-700 CE; Huari, circa 500-1000; Tiahuanao, circa 500-1000; & Chimu, circa 800-1465 CE) were organized in ayllu (clans); practiced animal husbandry (primarily bred llamas, alpacas, & vicunas for wool, transport, & meat). Alsohad written language & used quipo (knots in chord & string) to keep financial records & accounts. Incans (1300s-1536) built huge empire in Andes (Chile to Ecuador to Pacific Coast & Amazon Bazin). Even in mountainous terrain, were able to link together lands with elaborate transport & communication system. CapitalàCuzco, king courts were there. Conquered by Spanish in 1500s.


North America & Caribbean: Were hunter-gatherers; in Mexico & Central America, were despotic (rigid dictatorships, city-states warred against each other, but had high level of trade & economic interaction. Conquered by Spanish in 1500s.


Economic (Trade, Commodities Produced, Labor Systems, Social Hierarchies, agricultural v industrial, rural v urban)


Sub Saharan Africa: Mali (1250-1460), founded along Niger River Basin by Sundiata, had great gold & metal ore deposits. Because it was Islamic, it allowed for good trade relations with Arab states nor north of Sahara & created a group of educated scholars who acted as public servants. Mainly traded salt (shipped hundreds of miles along Niger River system). In Swahili coast (Great Zimbabwe & Mutapa), traded with Indians & east (Ming Dynasty China) using monsoons; traded gold jewelry, copper ornaments, carved soapstone birds, iron tools, Chinese ceramics, & Persian art.


Europe: HRE: Italian trade in Mediterranean (Italy passed between control of French, Spanish, Muslims, & Byzantines). Silk Road (trade with Middle East, gained Asian products), & trade with Egypt. Italy was highly urbanized but decentralized (many small states, & HRE), many cultures (thru trade, & Renaissance started there as result of transfer of ideas). Spain was conquered by Muslim Moors; brought Islam, culture, medical, scientific, & technological knowledge (as a result, cities like Cordoba became centers of science & learning). Portugal, in 1400s, begins exploration. Byzantium: linked Islamic Middle East, with Asia & East Indies. After 1071 defeat by Seljuk Turks, stripped territory away (eventually succeeded by Ottomans). In 1400s, empire shrank until only capital (captured by Ottomans 1453) was left. When Byzantine was destroyed, Constantinople became Turkish capital (Istanbul). In Russia, invaded by Golden Horde. Hungary, Sweden, & Poland remained stable & sophisticated (for a time). Russia becomes free in mid 1450's, with nation taking shape under ruler-ship of Moscow.


Crusades (1095-1291) (Christian movement to take back lands from & attack non-Christians, esp. Muslims, caused by genuine religious fervor between Muslims & Christians, geopolitical conflict between Europe & Middle East, European desire to become more involved in international trade network spanning from Mediterranean & China, personal ambition of many Europeans hoping to gain wealth & Middle Eastern land, & racial & social prejudice). Exchange between Europe & Middle East occurred (spices, gold, ideas). Crusades brought European awareness of outer world, worsening of relationship between Europe & Middle East, increased knowledge & desire for economic wealth, & contributed to myths of knighthood & chivalry. Urbanization increased, serfs moved to cities to find opportunities. More peasants also were forced into military service.


Middle Ages: 500-1500 CE


Middle East & North Africa: Middle East conquered by Turks, then Mongols.


East Asia: China traded with Korea, Japan, & Vietnam; Song empire had to pay tribute (money & silk) to Liao; Song then hired Jurchens (Liao's northern neighbors) to conquer Liao; however, Jurchens proclaimed their own Empire (Jin) However, Song still flourished culturally & economically: steady population growth, lessened but still lengthy trade routes (less contact with Middle East, but increasing contact with Southeast Asia & Pacific Coast). Canton (Guangzhou) became one of the world's busiest & most cosmopolitan trading centers; goods, merchants, ideas, & money from all of China, Japan, Korea, Southeast Asia, Malaysia, India, & Central Asia flowed through there (junks- Chinese trading vessels that cruised through Eastern seas, carrying manufactured goods & silk). Had good ties with Japan & Korea (religious & economic). Under Kublai Khan in Yuan, trade with West increased again.


Vietnamese grew crops (rice), supplied rice to rest of Asia.


South Asia: Indian Ocean Trade (almost entire coastline of India) tied together East Africa, Arabian peninsula, Persian Gulf, India, Malay peninsula, Indonesia, Japan, & China. West zone was controlled mainly by Arabs; goods from Africa (ivory, hides, forest-related goods esp. timber, & slaves, Major ports: Sofala, Mombasa, Mogadishu) & Middle East (textiles, carpets, glass, & Arabian horses Major ports: Jidda, Mecca, Ormuz). Middle zone controlled by Indian cities & kingdoms (Gujaratà Cambay, Malabaà Calicut, Chola,); goods from India (gems, elephants, salt, cotton cloth) & Ceylon (cinnamon) & Indonesia (spices/exotic wood). East (Chinese) zone; China (silk, porcelain, paper Major ports: Canton/Guangzhou, Hangzhou) & Japan (silver). Also connected Red Sea & Suez isthmus to Mediterranean.


South America: Andean people raised llamas, & were farmers (terrace farming)


North America & Caribbean: Traded with neighboring kingdoms/tribes


Religious (Religions, Leaders, Beliefs, Syncretism, Interactions, effects on politics and economy, persecution)


Sub Saharan Africa: Mansa Munsa & kingdom of Mali was Muslim; spread through Trans-Saharan trade. Also, most native Africans were animist. In east coast, Islam became important, did not displace animism. Christian Ethiopia.


Europe: Crusades (1095-1291) (Christian movement where knights try to take back lands from & attack non-Christians, esp. Muslims, caused by genuine religious fervor between Muslims & Christians, geopolitical conflict between Europe & Middle East, European desire to become more involved in international trade network spanning from Mediterranean & China, personal ambition of many Europeans hoping to gain wealth & Middle Eastern land, & racial & social prejudice). Catholic Church has art & political influence on Medieval culture, architecture, & philosophy, music, & literature. Invention of printing press makes books cheaper, spreads literacy, & also controversial writings.


In Catholic Church, there was a social hierarchy: priest, bishop, archbishops, cardinals, pope's advisors, pope. Many people became nuns/monks for food. Monks followed Benedictine order


Middle East & North Africa: Islam (mainly), Christianity, Judaism.


East Asia: Zen Buddhism (Japan); stressed importance of meditation, Daoism. Mongols also converted to Buddhism; Jagadi & Il-Khans (Mongolia) converted to Islam after conquest of Ottoman Turks (14th & 15th Century)


South Asia: Hinduism , Buddhism, Islam, animism (Polynesia); Cambodia & Indonesia had impressive religious structures


South America: Incans worshiped several deities, & king; young women were chosen each year to serve in temples


North America & Caribbean: Mayans & Aztecs built pyramids for religious purposes; art mainly for religious purposes. Temples built on top pyramids to honor gods (polytheistic) Aztecs & Mayans worshipped many of the same gods; had human sacrifice


Military (technology, wars, leaders, conquests, rise and fall of empires)


Sub Saharan Africa: Tribal wars?


Europe: Crusades (1095-1291) (Christian movement where knights try to take back lands from & attack non-Christians, esp. Muslims, caused by genuine religious fervor between Muslims & Christians, geopolitical conflict between Europe & Middle East, European desire to become more involved in international trade network spanning from Mediterranean & China, personal ambition of many Europeans hoping to gain wealth & Middle Eastern land, & racial & social prejudice). 1st Crusade (1096-1099): In 1095, Byzantines ask Christian Europe for military assistance against Seljuk Turk attacks; Turks already took Jerusalem & other Christian holy sites. Pope Urban II summons Council of Clermont, calls nobles to travel to Holy Land & retake Jerusalem & free it from Turks. By 1099, Crusaders reach Jerusalem & killed every non-Christian. Established 4 Christian states (Latin Kingdoms); served as military & political foothold in Middle East, enabled knights & nobles to become involved in the lucrative commercial economy that made it so wealthy. 2nd Crusade (1146-1149): followed fall of one of Latin Kingdoms. 3rd Crusade (1189-1192): resulted from Saladin's recapture of Jerusalem. Richard I the Lion-Hearted of England, Phillip II Augustus of France, & Frederick I Barbarossa of HRE united. Ended in stalemate: Jerusalem remained Muslim, Christian pilgrims free to visit city. Later crusades were unsuccessful/lost focus.


Also had to defend against Viking invaders.


Middle East & North Africa: Baghdad was constantly under military threat (Sunni Seljuk Turks); Turks allowed them to keep Shiite Abbasid caliph as nominal ruler. Mongols then killed last Abbasid caliph. Middle East then split into many states & partly united later by Turks. Also fought against European Crusaders.


East Asia: Song Empire fought with Jin & Liao empires; Liao were adept had cavalry warfare & siege-craft; Song had to pay tribute to Liao for many years. Song then hired Jurchens (Liao's northern neighbors) to conquer Liao; however, Jurchens proclaimed their own Empire (Jin). Mongols (under Genghis Khan) attack China 1211, taking Beijing (Jin capital). Died 1227, but sons continued legacy; by 1234, controlled most of North & West China, threatening Song & putting greater pressure on it. During 1260s, Mongol empire grew too large & split into smaller states. Kublai Khan (one of Genghis's grandsons) took China & Southeast Asia. Moved Mongol capital to Beijing, established Yuan Empire (1271-1368); conquered most of China & reunified it as a single country, & greatly expanded it ("Sinified"). China spreads culture, language, art styles to Japan, Korea, & Vietnam. Malacca was economic powerhouse, near Malacca strait (major sea route); first controlled by China in 1400s.


South Asia: Thailand expands substantially, taking Khmer in Cambodia; state of Annam became a great military power. Muslim army, led by Arab generals, took North India. Maori (Polynesians of New Zealand) were a warrior society.


South America: Incans expanded to "four corners" of South America


North America & Caribbean: Toltecs (Mexico, 986-1156) were very aggressive. Soldiers from capital (Tula) conquered most of central Mexico, but fell apart over religious civil wars; were weak enough to be beaten by northern invaders in 1160s. Aztecs (circa 1300-1520, had city of Tenochtitlan), were more war-like than Toltecs


Social (treatment of women, art, literature, writing systems, music, dance, marriage, family)


Sub Saharan Africa: Educated scholars acted as public servants. Had strong tradition of storytelling & song-making (ex: epic poem of Sundiata, founder of Mali). Most people in east were herders & relied on cattle. Women were valued as workers (fieldworkers) & for producing heirs; were still treated subservient to men. Women could inherit property, husband required to move into house of wife, families were matrilineal, rules between sexes were more informal Tribes had great carving & sculpture (wood & ivory) skills. Also worked with bronze & iron (used molds); Benin (West Africa) famous for bronze, brass, & copper sculptures of heads, ornaments, animal figures, & reliefs of court life. Architecture: Great Zimbabwe (stone buildings & walls), Mali (timber as skeletons of mud mosques), Zanzibar (coral decorations in buildings). Oral stories passed down through bards (acted as entertainers). Population along east (Swahili coast) was diverse: Persians, Arabs, Bantus, Turks, Indians. Islam became important, did not displace animism. Swahili was the most common language.


Europe: In Spain, non-Christians (Jews, Muslims) were persecuted. In HRE, upper-class knights, lords, & royal families, lower-class serfs & peasents. Anglican Church allowed divorce. Women were inferior, along with serfs. Renaissance (1400s): Petrarch (writer/poet), Giovanni Boccaccio (author), Giotto (painter), Filippo Brunelleschi (architect), Niccolo Machiavelli (political philosopher), Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, & Titian (painters). Mainly full of emotion & humanism, new innovations & discoveries in arts.


In the Middle Ages, there was Feudalism (created after fall of Rome, subjects pay crops/money to a ruler in exchange for protection from invaders; ruler were often lords, served under king) & Manorialism; hard to move up social hierarchy


Middle East & North Africa: Inferior treatment of women.


East Asia: Liao empire (916-1121, Mongolia & North China), people skilled at ceramics & painting, armies were adept at cavalry warfare & siege-craft, a major military threat to Song Empire. Song had to pay tribute of money & silk to them; Song then hired Jurchens (Liao's northern neighbors) to conquer Liao; however, Jurchens proclaimed their own Empire (Jin). Technologically & scientifically advanced: math, astronomy, accurate clocks, compass. Neo-Confucianism started & spread; united politically diffracted China, cemented into culture a strong tendency for hierarchy, social stratification, & obedience; put premium on education & behavior. Women were on bottom of Neo-Confucian (foot binding crippled & limited them). In Ming Dynasty, Confucianism & Buddhism were restored, population grew, arts flourished (novelà Golden Lotus), glassware, pottery, ceramics, china, paper, scroll-painting.


In Japan, Heian Period declined because of Fujiwara family political & aristocratic intrigueà neglected military responsibilities. In 1100s, warrior clans began to quarrel among themselves & 2 rival claimants for throne appeared: Taira & Minamoto.


South Asia: Muslim women had more right than Hindu women; could divorce & remarry, had more property rights than low-caste Hindu women. There were also religious conflicts (at first, sultans harshly imposed Islam; later, were less severe, but conflicts still existed between Muslims & Hindus). Aryans lived in North India, Dravidians lived in South.


South America: In Andean societies, greatly constrained women; wives were like servants to husbands; lower-class & common women worked as weavers, farmers, & child-rearers; some chose to work in temples to avoid those jobs


North America & Caribbean: Women gathered berries & roots, weaved, made pottery, & raised children; status varied In Mexico & Central America, women had rigidly defined gender roles: few upper-class women could be priestesses; also exerted informal influence by noble standing, could own property & sign business contracts independently of husbands. Art was mainly for religious purposes


Early Modern: 1450–1750Edit

Political (Governments, Laws, Empires, Leaders, Political Philosophies, Ruling Bureaucracies and the means of staffing them, treatment of minority people)


Sub Saharan Africa: In early 1400s, Africa increasingly became under influence of European (along eastern & western coasts, Portugal & later Europeans took cities, built fortresses, & made permanent colonies.


Previously dominant powers in W Africa: Mali; was fading in 1400s, replaced by Songhai (famous ruler: Askia Mohammed, 1493-1528; was a Muslim & skilled general, sponsored art & scholarship, greatly expanded Songhai's boundaries). Prospered during 1500s until 1590 conquest by Morocco.


Strongest W African states: Oyo, Benin, Dahomey, Kongo, & Ashanti; cooperated with European slave trade (fought & imprisoned other African tribes, then sold captives to European slavers). W Africa became known as "Gold Coast" because of abundance of gold &slaves


In S Africa, Dutch Boers quickly enslaved nearby Xhosa, & had wars with warlike Zulus


Europe: European nations grew stronger & more stable.


Protestantism: created by Martin Luther (disliked tithes & other church methods to gain funding for projects/make religious official rich) in 1517; church was corrupt & had Great Schism.


Protestants- less emphasis on rituals & sacraments than Catholics. Many opposed Catholic veneration of saints (ex: Virgin Mary) & considered such practices to interfere with a pure, sincere relationship with God.


Calvinists-believed in predestination


Catholic Counter-Reformation- Protestant Reformation caused Catholic Church to reform (Council of Trentà 1534-1563, Church worked to eliminate worst of financially & spiritually corrupt practices). Church also took measures to appear more appealing than Protestants: sponsored creation of impressive religious art & architecture (gave birth to Baroque movement), established Index of Forbidden books to stiffen religious discipline, reaffirmed pope's authority, gave new powers to Holy Inquisition, & approved formation of new religious order (Society of Jesus aka Jesuits, led by St. Ignatius Loyolaà worked as missionaries, educators, diplomats, & confessors to monarchs to keep Catholic parts of Europe from becoming Protestant; also had political role)


After 1500s, feudalism began to fade & nation-states began emerging (1600s-1700s, major European states were developing bureaucracies & agencies (tax-collecting bodies, central banks, general staffs (for army), admiralties (for navy), & ministries and cabinets; became more rational & bureaucratic, although aristocrats still had power; centralized monarchs


Centralized Rulers: Henry VIII & Elizabeth I (England); Louis XI & Henry IV (France); Charles V (Habsburg ruler, governed Spain & HRE, although more successful ruling HRE); Phillip II (Spain, colonized and dominated economically Americas, made Spain wealthy), & Ivan IV (the Terrible, of Russia; used extreme violence to control nobles).


Some became Absolutist (Louis XIV; Austrian Habsburgsà HRE, Leopold I of France built great palaces around Vienna & fought against Turks, who tried capturing it; Frederick the Greatà Prussia, won against Austria, France, & Russia in Seven Year's War but had increased dictatorship & decreased freedom; Peter & Catherine the Greatà Russia)


Some became Parliamentary (England à joined with Wales, Scotland, Ireland; & Dutch Republic) Parliaments eventually challenge power of kings


Age of Explorationà Imperialism; Europe was backwards compared to Middle East, India, & China. Goods from Silk Road trade caused Europeans to want to explore & expand; 1300s-1400s: Europeans began ocean trade with Arabs; Portugal & Spain made 1st explorations to Mediterranean (made contact with Ottomans) & Africa (Portugal claimed some parts of Africa & reached India); Spain discovered Americas (Columbus, funded by Ferdinand & Isabella), becoming rich.


Magellan becomes 1st to circumnavigate globe, Vasco de Gama becomes 1st to reach India by sea, Balboa discovers Panama, Ponce de Leon takes Florida (1513), Cortes defeats Montezuma II & Aztecs & takes Tenochtitlan, later explorers take California, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Texas, Missouri, Louisiana, & Alabama. Francisco Pizzaro destroys Incan Empire (1530s).


Portuguese takes parts of India (Goa), Malacca (1511), Brazil, Sri Lanka, most of East African coast (set up strongholds in Mombasa & Zanzibar), Cuba, Puerto Rico, & Hispaniola (Haiti & D.R.)


Spain takes parts of N. America, destroys Incan & Aztec Empire. Both converted natives to Catholicism & used them as slaves; failed, resulting in bringing African slaves.


Rest of Europe were jealous, & sought to Northwest Passage through Americas to Asia. France's Giovanni de Verrazano surveyed Atlantic Coast (N. Carolina to Newfoundland); Jacques Cartier traveled up St. Lawrence River & established 1st French settlement in Canada (Nova Scotiaà Port Royal in 1605, Quebec in 1608). Also explored Great Lakes, mapped Mississippi.


Dutch East Indian Company: seized colonies from Portuguese (Spice Islands, 1595), Sri Lanka, most of W. Africa, Malacca (SE Asia, 1641). Also took Indonesia, Manhattan (Henry Hudson)à New Amsterdam.


English: fought naval wars in 1500s with Spain; harassed Spanish colonies & ships. Sir Francis Drake becomes 1st Englishman to sail around world (1577-1580), John Cabot (1490s) tried finding an Arctic passage to Asia. English established colonies along N. Atlantic coast of N. America (Pilgrimsà Mayflower, colony of Puritans in Virginia). Later, British East India Company (1600) manages (but later seizes) trade affairs is S & SE Asia; seized Malacca from Dutch (1795).


Middle East & North Africa: Ottomans gain power (1300s-1400s); was ruled by sultan (provincial governors (beys)/local officials (pashas)à viziers (ministers)à head vizierà sultan). Sultan position was hereditary (many family intrigues); sultan's mother ran sultan household, could be involved in diplomatic relations with foreign officials, & controlled marriage alliances.


Persia: Umayyad & Abbasid caliphates= 1200s-1400s; then were controlled by Mongols; then, in 1400s, new Islamic Empire arose (Safavid Empire); created by 15 yr old Ismail (1501-1526), strict Shiites lived there, tried converting everybody else to Shiite. Constantly threatened by Ottomans in West; used army to defend itself, built itself up into a gunpowder empire. Safavid falls in 1722 (Isfahan sacked by Afghan raiders; also because empire had no ports & was at trade disadvantage)


East Asia: 1400s-1700s: China (Ming Dynasty 1368- Manchu Qing Dynasty) & Japan(1300-1500s, had feudal & civil wars, was divided; government achieved reunification in Tokugawa Shogunate) become dominant powers of Asia; however, were slipping in terms of international balances of power (scientific & technological advances they had 1000-1450); left them vulnerable to foreign influence & dominance in 1800s.


Ming fell when large influx of silver from Spanish & Portuguese territories in Americas caused economic trouble (inflation, economic breakdown). Agricultural fields also shrank, Ming finally collapsed in wars with Central Asia, Mongolia, & Manchuria. After peasant rebellions, Manchus invaded & established Qing (had ethnically-based system of social stratification: Chinese forced to wear certain clothing/queues; also added Mongolia, Tibet, Nepal, Burma, & parts of Central Asia to tributary system). Also negotiated borders with Russia.

Qing Emperors: Kangxi (1622-1722; skilled general, just lawgiver, sponsored culture & learning. Bolstered imperial authority of Qing by patronizing Confucianism, put emphasis on respect for authority) & Qianlong (1736-1795; the last intelligent & dynamic ruler the Qing had, strengthened China's borders & fostered economic growth, promoted scholarship)Qing declined as rulers became softer & less active. Although population grew steadily. national wealth could barely support population. Except for upper class, poverty worsened. Japanese Shogunates: Kamakura (1185-1333) & Ashikaga (1336-1573); kept Japan ordered & unified. Japan was breaking apart into independent/semi-independent feudal states (ruled by daimyos, many were samurai). Japan's breakdown in 1467 led to anarchy & collapse. Next hundred years: Era of Independent Lords (samurai were loyal & fought for daimyos). 1560-1615 3 warlords unified Japan; Oda Nobunaga (one of the 1st military leaders to use gunpowder), Toyotomi Hideyoshi (brought most of Japan back together as a nation, but failed to create a political system that could survive his death; was Nobunaga's successor & made capital Osaka. Did much to centralize Japan & control power of previously independent daimyo. After death, Tokugawa Ieyasu took his place; defeated fellow regents at Battle of Tokugawa (1600), declared himself shogun (1603), captured & defeated Hideyoshi's son. Ieyasu & his descendants rule Japan (technically ruled in the name of the emperor, which did not really have power & was cloistered in Kyoto, former Heian)


Tokugawa Shogunate (1603-1868); created by Ieyasu. 15 Tokugawa shoguns, & near end, grasp of power & control of Japan was unassailable; also had gunpowder. Established new capital at Edo (Tokyo). Peace came from dictatorship, increased social stratification, & rigid class system. Inflexibility & gradual decentralization eventually brought down shogunate, & foreign powers eventually force open ports (1850s) & ended Tokugawa rule.


South Asia: In India, Delhi Sultanate collapsed because of Mongols (Timur 1398-1399). Finally fell from Mongol warlord of Genghis Khan, Babur the Tiger (1520); launched full-scale invasion of India from north, quickly defeated Delhi Sultanate & founded own government in India: Mughal Empire (1530-1730), ruled by Babur & descendants. Were Muslims, one of the 3 great Islamic empire of the period (Ottoman & Safavid). Expanded southward, centralized India. Mughal was mainly religiously flexible (allowed Buddhists & Hindus to practice religion).


Akbar the Great (1556-1605): grandson of Babur, ruled during Mughal Empire's peak, completed conquest of India using heavy artillery. Also created bureaucracies & administrations that allowed Mughal to govern India efficiently; tax codes & legal systems were just; Akbar's rule was mainly prosperous & had religious tolerance (worked actively to encourage friendly relations among Muslims, Buddhists, & Hindus; even sought Christian advice from ports; made sure that a specific percentage of gov. officials were Hindu, married a Hindu princess, & tried to create a new, inclusive religion- Divine Faith- but failed


Mughal declined in late 1600s-early 1700s under rule of Aurangzeb (1658-1707, son of Babur); was a militant Muslim & abandoned predecessors' policy of religious tolerance; forced thousands to convert to Islam, causing civil strife within India & adverse effect on economy; caused great Sikh violence (founded late 1400s by Nanak, stressed power of prayer & meditation to holy enlightenment) by killing Sikh leaderà Sikhs created own state (Punjab) & developed strong warrior tradition. Within each year, more provinces broke apart & became more independent; empire fell when an Iranian marauder sacked Delhi (1739)


European interference increased (Portuguese Vasco de Gama arrived in 1498, then more Portuguese, then Spanish, Dutch, French, & English), but empire was strong with gunpowder in 1600s to fend them off. However, English established textile factories at Fort William (near Calcutta, in Northeast) & Madras; western gateway of Bombay (Mumbai) was ceded to British in 1661; Dutch established bases in Colombo, chief city of Ceylon; Portuguese established trading center at Pondicherry, on east coast. Europeans profited by gaining control over Indian cotton & spice trade from East Indies. In 1740s, English & French troops fought each other in India for "right" to colonize it. In 1750s, British expelled French, defeated Mughal easily (but kept rulers as puppet rulers).


Strong states of SE Asia were Khmer state (Cambodia), nation of Annam (Vietnam), Burma (had largest army in SE Asia) , Thailand (conquered Khmer), & Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, etc); were politically & economically important.


Australia, New Zealand, & Tasmania went under British control after James Cook charted east coast of Australia & claimed it for England; full-scale settlement of Australia (1788): criminals were deported there, population mainly consisted of soldiers, gov officials, & criminals. All of Australia was claimed (1830), rate of settlement increased as free settlers joined colony (seeking fortunes, mainly sheep herdersà pushed into interior, displacing Aborigines) Many violent & one-sided conflicts between settlers & natives, ended with dispossession & ill treatment of natives.


South America: After Christopher Columbus reached Americas, Spain built up a large presence in N & S America (Portugal had Brazil), Caribbean, defeated Aztecs in Mexico (by Hernan Cortez) & Incas in Andes region (by Francisco Pizzaro). Spain governed American territories through viceroyalties: Viceroyalty of New Spain (1535), Viceroyalty of Peru (1590s), Viceroyalty of New Granada (1730àEcuador, Colombia, Venezuela, & Panama), & Viceroyalty of La Plata (after 1776à Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina, & Uruguay). Spanish were successful in conquering natives because of disease, technology, & using rivalries/gaining allies. Natives were exploited for labor (profit) & were forcedly converted to Catholicism.


Encomienda system made all Native Americans subjects of Spanish rule, were enslaved & used for labor by Conquistadors as rewards; in 1530s-40s, natives were under control of Madrid instead of conquistadors; House of Trade was established to direct all trading & shipping from New World through Spanish port of Seville.


North America & Caribbean: colonized by Dutch & English in east coast, Spanish controlled W & SW. Dutch began settling 1500s-1600s; as part of rivalry & war of independence from Spain, Dutch took part of Caribbean & seized NW Brazil from Portuguese. In 1622, Netherlands created Dutch West Indian Company (for Americas). New Netherlands: Dutch colony in NY, in region explored & claimed by Henry Hudson, 1609. Peter Minuit purchased Manhattan (New Amsterdam) from locals in 1624. Peter Stuyvesantà leader of New Amsterdam, lost it & New Netherlands to English (renamed in NY) in naval war in Europe, 1664.


English also took some Caribbean islands (from Portuguese & Spanish; made Barbados, Trinidad, & Jamaica in 1500s), but mainland interested Elizabeth I the most (1606 English colony of Roanoke by Sir Walter Raleigh). In 1606, Jamestown became 1st successful colony (helped by Pocahontas & natives). Colonies in Carolina appeared in 1600s, Puritan Mayflower pilgrims landed at Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1606; Massachusetts Bay colony founded in 1628, Boston established 1630, Dutch colony of New Amsterdam fell to English in 1664, Pennsylvania organized in 1682 by Quaker William Penn. French come later in 1700s.


Economic (Trade, Commodities Produced, Labor Systems, Social Hierarchies, agricultural v industrial, rural v urban)


Sub Saharan Africa: Exploited economically by Europeans (took gold, spices, ivory, etc) through trade & by force. Also had Atlantic slave trade; slave trade & imperialism had great impact of economy. W & Central W African states (esp. Kongo) were rich in gold, ivory, foodstuffs, & animal hides; gold trade was brisk & active. All of W Africa was affected by European arrival: Portuguese originally wanted to find a way to India; however, they & other Europeans sought control over ivory & gold networks in W & C Africa (ex: Portuguese conquered Mwene Metapa dynasty of Shona people in 1500s to dominate gold trade along upper Zambezi River)


In E Africa, Portuguese made permanent bases there for trade with India & Asia; allowed them to reach India more efficiently & gained tighter control over trade in Indian Ocean, esp. spices. In early 1500s, conquered chain of cities along east coast & turned them into colonies/garrisons (Malindi, Kilwa, Sofala, Mozambique, & Mombasa, although Arabs expel them from Mombasa in 1728. Later, other Europeans colonize E Africa


Arabs also had slave trade on E coast; Portuguese began enslaving Africans in 1441, Atlantic slave trade started 1500s & numbers grew tremendously (great need in Portuguese S American colonies in sugar plantations, mainly Brazil, & natives of Americas did not make good slaves. Many slaves died on journey to Americas; in Triangle Trade, European manufactured goods (metal ware, cotton textiles, gin/rum, firearms) were sent to Africa & exchanged for gold, ivory, wood, & slaves; other items were eventually sent back to Europe, slaves sent to Americas. In Americas, slaves were traded for raw materials (furs, tobacco, raw cotton, sugar products, & silver), which were sent to Europe. Greatly increased European growth


Europe: Printing press made books, etc. cheaper; middle class (workers) emerged, trade & commerce became key parts of economy, discoveries in Agricultural Revolution (aeration of soil, iron plows, crop rotation) improved agriculture; capitalism (Wealth of Nations by Smith; believed gov. should take as little part in economy as possible)


Exploration & colonization caused great economic growth in Europe & increased territory (Triangle Trade)


Middle East & North Africa: Silk Road trade, Mediterranean trade. Isfahanà Safavid Persia's most important trading center, received many Chinese (Asian) goods, famous for carpets.


East Asia: traded with Europeans; Ming fell when large influx of silver from Spanish & Portuguese territories in Americas caused economic trouble (inflation, economic breakdown. During Qing, foreign trade was regulated by state; traded silk, porcelain, & tea. Sent a high volume of exports to other nations & allowed few importsà highly favorable balance of trade. Population grew steadily. national wealth could barely support population. Except for upper class, poverty worsened. Slipping backwards in terms of technological innovation, scientific advancement, & global power; became increasing open to Western influence, then domination, in 1800s.


During Tokugawa Shogunate, Japan had isolationism (especially to Europeans, because of missionaries & fear of foreign political & economic influence). However, shogunate restored & kept peace, population grew rapidly, rice & grain production more than doubled (1600-1720), became more urbanized (roads & canals). Had great economic growth (produced lacquer-ware, pottery, steel, & weapons). Merchant class became increasingly wealthy & powerful.


South Asia: Mughal Empire's economy thrived from market trade boom. However, Aurangzeb forced thousands to convert to Islamàcaused civil strife in India, had adverse effect on economy. English established textile factories at Fort William (near Calcutta, in Northeast) & Madras; western gateway of Bombay (Mumbai) was ceded to British in 1661; Dutch established bases in Colombo, chief city of Ceylon; Portuguese established trading center at Pondicherry, on east coast. Europeans profited by gaining control over Indian cotton & spice trade from East Indies. European control (esp. English) over India increased during 1700s


South America: Natives were exploited to work under encomienda system; silver & other precious metals mined by Spanish & Portuguese, with natives as miners. Natives were also laborers on plantations (grew sugar, coffee, bananas, tomatoes, corn, & potatoes)


North America & Caribbean: From colonies, English colonists mainly took raw materials (wood, corn, potatoesà important in Ireland, tobacco, beef, sugarà molasses)


French settled Canada (became property of France in 1663). At end by 1600s, French took huge part of N America (Eastern Canada & most of interior of US). In Caribbean, French had Martinique, Guadeloupe, & St. Domingue (Haiti)à had sugar. In N America, French trapped animals & traded furs in European market


Russians, after taking Siberia in 1500s, reached Pacific coast in 1600s & explored/surveyed Alaska & waterway between Siberia & N America in Bering Expedition (1730s-1740s). Aleutian's native population fell because of Russian violence, diseases, & alcoholism. Also had fur trade, built fortresses southwards, along California; then came into conflict with English (which claimed part of Canada) in 1867. Spain feared Russian encroachments in California & US (were already in Washington & Oregon)


Religious (Religions, Leaders, Beliefs, Syncretism, Interactions, effects on politics and economy, persecution)


Sub Saharan Africa: Muslim, animist, Christian (Ethiopia)


Europe: Protestantism created by Martin Luther (disliked tithes & other church methods to gain funding for projects/make religious official rich) in 1517; church was corrupt & had Great Schism.


Protestants- less emphasis on rituals & sacraments than Catholics. Many opposed Catholic veneration of saints (ex: Virgin Mary) & considered such practices to interfere with a pure, sincere relationship with God.


Calvinists-believed in predestination


Catholic Counter-Reformation- Protestant Reformation caused Catholic Church to reform (Council of Trentà 1534-1563, Church worked to eliminate worst of financially & spiritually corrupt practices). Church also took measures to appear more appealing than Protestants: sponsored creation of impressive religious art & architecture (gave birth to Baroque movement), established Index of Forbidden books to stiffen religious discipline, reaffirmed pope's authority, gave new powers to Holy Inquisition, & approved formation of new religious order (Society of Jesus aka Jesuits, led by St. Ignatius Loyolaà worked as missionaries, educators, diplomats, & confessors to monarchs to keep Catholic parts of Europe from becoming Protestant; also had political role)


Middle East & North Africa: Ottomans ruled not only Sunnis, but Shiite minority. Tolerant of others religions (for political & economic reasons), but non-Muslims had less equal rights, had to pay head tax, could convert to Islam if they wished, could not serve in military, but had own administrative unit (millet= "nation"). Included Jews & Christians (Nestorian, Orthodox, Coptic, Protestant, Catholic)


East Asia: Buddhist, Daoist, few Christians (mainly banned), Shintoism (Japan). Catholic Missionaries (ex: Francis Xavier, Matteo Ricci) were unsuccessful


South Asia: India (Delhi Sultanate & Mughal Empire) was Muslim; still had Hindus & Buddhists, practiced religious tolerance until Aurangzeb's rule. Indonesia was esp. Muslim.


South America: Natives were forcedly converted to Catholicism/Christianity. Catholic clergy, esp. Dominican monk Bartolomew de Las Casas protested cruel treatment of natives under encomienda system (were also unable & unfit to work in the ways the Spanish wanted); advocated African slave use insteadàabolished encomienda system in 1542


North America & Caribbean: Natives were forcedly converted to Catholicism/Christianity


Military (technology, wars, leaders, conquests, rise and fall of empires)


Sub Saharan Africa: European demand for gold & slaves caused W Africans to fight other tribes for slaves.


Europe: Religious War: Catholic monarchs try to force Protestants back to Catholicism; civil war broke out in Switzerland & HRE. In Germany, mainly Catholics won but were forced to compromise (Treaty of Augsburg allowed some Protestant German states). Spanish try to convert Calvinist Dutch; Catholic majority vs. Calvinists (Huguenots). Spanish Armada tries & failed to defeat Elizabeth I of Protestant England.


Wars also involved not only soldiers, but women, children, & civilians; also wide-scale because of gunpowder use.


Thirty Year's War: began as Protestant Bohemians (supported by Dutch, Danes, Swedes, & Lutheran/Calvinist German states) in HRE vs. Catholic authorities (supported by Spain, Austrians of HRE, & other parts of Germany). Eventually, became less about religion & more about politics; Catholic France joins Protestants (wanted to weaken Spain & HRE, which it considered threats to power). After 1520s, warfare over religious debate ended.


English Civil War (1640-1649): Anglicans vs. Puritans & King vs. Parliament; Parliament won, Charles I was killed; for a decade, England established a Commonwealth ruled by Parliament Head Oliver Cromwell.


Restoration (1660): royal family returned, but Church & Parliament shared power with them


Glorious Revolution (1688): William I took throne, but had to agree to religious toleration & Bill of Rights. With Parliament in controlà strong economies, powerful navies, urbanized societies, & intellectual & cultural outlooks that were relatively free from religious persecution. Poverty & inequality still existed, but society was more flexible & social advancement more feasible than in absolutist monarchies.


Printing press made books, etc. cheaper, more literate people; heliocentric theory, higher level of intellectual sophistication (Erasmus, Cervantes, Shakespeare); led to Baroque period & Scientific Revolution (Copernicus, Roger Bacon, Rene Descartes, Isaac Newton) & Enlightenment (new philosphersà Locke, Hobbes, Adam Smith, Voltaire, Mary Wollstonecraft, Diderot, Rousseau)


Middle East & North Africa: Aggressive sultans of Ottoman Empire (Mehmed II, "The Conqueror") took Balkansà eastern Mediterranean (late 1300s), Constantinople (1451-1481). During late 1400s-early 1500s, Selim I takes N. Africa. Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566) takes Danube Valley, Romanian & Hungarian & Austrian HRE territories, then pushed back a little by Austrians in Vienna; already controlled most of SE Europe & controlled Mediterranean.


1500s-1600s: Ottomans at military peak; used gunpowder & cannons, had Janissaries (Christian boys converted to Islam) in army (were loyal to sultan, trusted, had many privileges)


Ottomans were eventually pushed back by Austrian counteroffensive of Catholic allies & continuously fought with Europe in 1700s, eventually called "sick man of Europe" (declined 1700s-1800s)


Turks also had presence in N. Africa (Egypt, conquered by Selim I, 1512-1520), Niger River & waterways)


Safavid Shah Abbas the Great (1587-1628) combine traditional calvary (aristocratic troops with bows) with modern infantry (gunpowder weapons, like Janissaries of Ottomans)


East Asia: 15 Tokugawa shoguns, & near end, grasp of power & control of Japan was unassailable; also had gunpowder. Established new capital at Edo (Tokyo). Peace came from dictatorship


South Asia: Mughal India used gunpowder, was more technologically & scientifically advanced than most parts of the world during 1500s & 1st half of 1600s; eventually lost ground to Europeans. Women were allowed some rights (female aristocrats were awarded titles, earned salaries, owned land, ran businesses, some received education & were allowed to express creative talents openly; women of all castes were allowed to augment family's income by selling their woven products; some could also inherit land & play active part in running businesses). However, were restricted by Islamic law (but were already practiced by Indians: cloistering women inside homes, esp. Hindu upper-class women; sati remained legal & women were taught to serve under husbands. Because Aurangzeb's forced Islam conversions, Sikhs became very violent


South America: Balboa discovers Panama, Francisco Pizzaro destroys Incan Empire (1530s).


North America & Caribbean: Ponce de Leon takes Florida (1513), Cortes defeats Montezuma II & Aztecs & takes Tenochtitlan, later explorers take California, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Texas, Missouri, Louisiana, & Alabama.


During 1700s, French loses lots of N American territory in wars (vs. England & Spain, & with help from natives)à French & Indian wars loss led to English taking of Canada (Quebec), Spain taking Louisiana; French still retained heritage.


Dutch (under Stuyvesant) loses New Amsterdam & New Netherlands to English.


Social (treatment of women, art, literature, writing systems, music, dance, marriage, family)


Sub Saharan Africa: The Epic of Askia Mohammed: fictionalized account of Mohammed's reign of Songhai, one of the classics of African oral tradition. In W & C Africa, several African tribes were organized along matrilineal lines; often existed a hierarchy of women who served in leadership positions that paralleled those of men. Mother, wife, sisters, & council of matrons of chief would play an influential role in each group; some ruled in co-rulerships/became chiefs (ex: Queen Nzinga, 1582-1663, ruled Mbundu in Angola; became much respected for successfully defending people against Portuguese). In W African trading villages, women could sell surplus produce, & some administered market system on a larger scale (women's councils formed to administer markets). In N Africa (Islamic), upper-class women were mainly cloistered & wore veils; economic necessity compelled lower-class women to work outside homes


When Portuguese established colony in Cape of Good Hope (S Africa), later got handed over to Dutch in 1600s (Boers/Afrikaans); farmed & traded with ships sailing around Africa. Looked down upon native Africans & other people of color, later developed apartheid


Many different tribes, so many different types of art; sculpture was mainly dominant, art was usually concerned with human adornment (masks, beads), & was abstract. 1450-1750, artists continued to produce wood carvings, sculptures, metal work, & traditional painting, but also used innovations. Traded carved ivory pieces & textiles with Europeans; textiles were prevalent among Kuba of W Congo Basin (usually owned by elite, but some lower classes could own them) Also had woven baskets. In Ethiopia, Christian African kings commissioned artists to build churches with brightly colored wall paintings of holy events. 1st written literature (novels, poetry, plays) was not conceived in African/European languages until 1800s, but architecture became increasingly influenced by Arab & European forts in E & W Africa.


Europe: With Parliament in controlà strong economies, powerful navies, urbanized societies, & intellectual & cultural outlooks that were relatively free from religious persecution. Poverty & inequality still existed, but society was more flexible & social advancement more feasible than in absolutist monarchies. Many people left countryside for city, middle class was emerging, & commerce & industry started becoming key parts of economy. Some became merchants, lawyers, doctors, bankers). Some women gained education, peasants worked in cottage industry (manufacturers parceled work out to small shops/peasants), women gained work & some became part of growing middle class); however, there were also witch hunts, although some women were scientists. Isabella in Spanish kingdom of Castile, Elizabeth I, Maria Theresa of Austria, & Catherine the great were female rulers.


Middle East & North Africa: sultan's mother ran sultan household, could be involved in diplomatic relations with foreign officials, & controlled marriage alliances. Harem was a complex elite social network; male harem were trained for military/administrative positions, concubines were taught to read Koran, sew, & play music. Female harem were often connected to sultan's family & gained influence over sultans by raising them & training them to respect their guidance. Outside imperial family, women were usually not seen in public, but had right to own property & retain it after marriage, took part in urban real estate market through male agents, could even testify for themselves at court.


Ottomans had sophisticated culture; high level of intellectual advancement, but lost huge scientific & technological advancements (1500s-1600s) they had over Europe; then started falling behind in technology & innovation. However, were skilled at art, literature, music, & architecture (mosquesàdomes, minarets, mosaics)


East Asia: Ming China (1368-1400s): artistic & intellectual achievements; Portuguese first arrived at SE Asia & established trade with it. Manchus invaded & established Qing (had ethnically-based system of social stratification: Chinese forced to wear certain clothing/queues. Women still had few freedoms.


During Japan's Tokugawa shogunate, shogun had firm control over samurai & daimyo, had dictatorship, increased social stratification, & rigid class system. Women lived under increasing restrictions, especially in samurai class (followed Confucian teachings). Wives had to obey husbands, or death; had little authority over property, educated home (boys went to school). In upper-class families, some women were literate (Lady Murasaki) & displayed social graces as a reflection husband's status & rank. In lower classes, women were more egalitarian (men & women worked in fields, women were given respect as homemakers & mothers). Some peasant women became active in social protests & demonstrated against gov. officials, landlords, & merchants who mistreated them. However, some girls were less valued, put to death/prostitution.


Tokugawa castles partly imitated European style. Formally dominant, more restrained, & classically styled Noh plays were replaced by Kabuki (emphasized violence, physical actionà acrobats & swordplay, & music; often depicted life in brothels & dance halls, shoguns criticized it for corrupting morals). Wood-block printing also became an art form. Art became more influenced by outside world (Koreans, Chinese)


South Asia: Taj Mahal: built at Agra (capital of Mughal Empire) by Shah Jahan, in memory of wife; many artistic achievements: new styles of painting (blending of Indian & Persian), experimented with European Renaissance styles (perspective, color shadings, realistic portraits). Poetryà mainly written in Persian; also had a revival of devotional writings to Hindu gods.


South America: Natives under encomienda system were treated harshly by Spanish; after its abolishment in 1542, Africans were brought to S America (were also treated harshly). Social Hierarchy: peninsulares (people from Europe)à creoles (Europeans born in Americas)à mestizos/mulattos ("mixed" heritage)àNatives & Africans


North America & Caribbean: Natives allied with French in French-Indian War; populations were wiped out by violence from settlers & diseases

Industrial Revolution: 1750–1914Edit

Political (Governments, Laws, Empires, Leaders, Political Philosophies, Ruling Bureaucracies and the means of staffing them, treatment of minority people)


Sub Saharan Africa: Ashanti Kingdom (W Africa) flourished from gold & slave trade; built up military, fought long wars with Britain (1700s-1900s). Dutch Boers in S Africa displaced Zulus from land (1850s); Zulus became aggressive towards them; also fought against British (diamonds were discovered in their land) & Zulus had several victories against British (Isandlwana); Zulus eventually lost to British in 1879. Few states were independent from Europeans: Ethiopia (originally allied with Portuguese to defend against Arabs), Liberia (colony of freed slaves)


Slave trade was eventually banned in Americas & Europe by 1888; Muslims still continued trading slaves, & Westerners worked to end slave trade/markets (ex: David Livingstone, missionaries, British navy blockading Islamic states of W Africa). Slave trade also occurred illegally (Arabs, underground slave traders esp. in Zanzibar)


Years of slavery & European dominance caused Africans to prefer Western products over crafts from their own people (economic decline)


Europeans took over Africa because of new advances (transportà railroads, steamships; scienceà quinine, against malaria). Britain had: "Cape to Cairo" (S Africa, Botswana, Rhodesia/Zimbabwe, Kenya, Uganda, Sudan, & Egypt & some influence in Zanzibar) owned by imperialist Cecil Rhodes; believed in "White Man's Burden". France had: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, W Africa, & Equatorial Africa; also believed in "civilizing mission". Belgium had: Congo (harshly forced Africans to harvest rubber, King Leopold II of Belgium established the International Association of Congoà private company in 1884 for economic development of Congo. Italy: failed to claim Ethiopia (defeated by Menelik II in Battle of Adowa, 1896) & did succeed in getting Libya from Ottoman Empire before WWI (1911-12); had humiliating defeats & not much success. Germany had Togoland, Cameroons, SW Africa, & German E Africa; had to deal with Maji Maji uprising (1905-07), brutally killed Africans.


In Berlin Conference (1884-85, started Scramble for Africa), European nations agreed that each nation in the conference had to make their intentions clear to the other nations in the conference about what they plan to do. Drew poor borders, overlapping about 200 different tribes.


Europe: French Revolution (1789-1799): Caused by the wide social & economic gap between ordinary citizens (3rd Estate) & country's elite & the Catholic clergy (1st Estate) & aristocracy (1st Estate); unfairness of tax system (1st & 2nd Estate were exempt from taxes); frustrated ambitions of growing 3rd Estate (possessed wealth & education but barred from social advancement because of position); influence of Enlightenment ideas (many philosophers were French, made powerful arguments in favor of fair gov., equality of all citizens, separation of gov. powers, & more civil rights). Political ineptitude of Louis XV & XVI, & financial crisis in France also contributed to it. Also, France financially supported American Revolution (1775-1783)à more financial troubles. Financial crisis was the most immediate cause (impending bankruptcy of French gov. in 1780s, caused by Marie Antoinette's lavish spendingàmore taxes on 3rd Estate.


In 1789, Louis XVI summoned Estate Generals (national assembly composed of delegates from each of the 3 Estates); 3rd Estate wanted to compromise with Louis XVI & 1st & 2nd Estates; however, were unable to. On June 20, 1789, delegates of 3rd Estate withdrew from Estates General to a tennis court at Versailles (called themselves National Assembly) & made Tennis Court Oath (National Assembly swore not to disband/leave Versailles until Louis XVI agreed to grant France a constitution). Louis XVI pretended to cooperate at first, but secretly summoned troops to arrest National Assembly; National Assembly called upon nearby people of Paris to rise up & support them, esp. sans-culottes (lower-class radicals). On Bastille Day (July 14, 1789). crowds seized Bastille (where political prisoners were kept)à considered French Day of Independence. Revolution spread: large cities rose up in imitation of Paris, noblemen estates were burned, aristocratic lands were seized, Louis XVI & Mary Antoinette were taken into custody.


Phases of French Revolution: Moderate Period (1789-1791)àRadical Period (1792-1794)à Period of mildly conservative backlash (1794-1799). Political power at first rested with middle class & liberal members of nobilityà as time passed & France's problems worsened, power shifted to lower classes (esp. in cities) & politicians who represented them. After 1799, the French Revolution ended & rise of Napoleon.


During 1st phase, National Assembly's goal was to create constitutional monarchy (similar to British's, inspired by Enlightenment ideals & American Revolutionà Declaration of the Rights of Man & the Citizen, based on Thomas Jefferson's Declaration of Independence. Over next 2 yrs, France was liberalized greatly under Legislative Assembly (replaced National Assembly)à abolished noble privileges (ex: tax exemption), nationalized lands belonging to Catholic Church, separated state & religion; Legislative Assembly was elected by male adult citizens, almost all power rested in assembly; king was allowed to stay on throne, but had extremely limited constitutional role (figureheads). Motto: "Liberty, Fraternity, & Equality"


Problems of National & Legislative Assemblies: rights & ideals proclaimed by revolutionary regime applied at first only to white, Catholic, adult males & took many months for right to vote to be extended to Jews, Protestants, & blacks from France's Caribbean territories; liberty, fraternity, equality, & voting rights were never extended to women, peasants, & workers, who played a major role in toppling Louis XVI's absolutist monarchy. National & Legislative Assembly also proved unable to solve many of France's problems: economy worsened, other countries hostile to revolution & fearful for safety of royal family threatened war (ex: Austria, Marie Antoinette's original home). Legislative Assembly was more radical than National Assembly & more willingly to fight other countries in order spread revolutions beyond France.


During 2nd phase, French supported left side more & economy continued to worsen; riots occurred on streets & fewer people had patience for the moderate constitutional monarchy; led to fall of Legislative Assembly, king was completely stripped of power, a new constitution was written, & French Republic was proclaimed (Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette were declared private citizens & placed under house arrest). National Convention was formed & dominated by radical parties (Jacobins). Jacobins, led by Maximilian Robespierre created a small executive body: Committee of Public Safetyà quickly seized all control. Radical gov. expanded war effort against rest of Europe, king was put on trial & put to death in 1793. Jacobin-led Committee of Public Safety mobilized entire economy for combat & instituted world's 1st national draft. Robespierre & Committee carried out Reign of Terror (1793-1794), searching for spies, traitors, & counter-revolutionaries; even radical parties fell victim to them; civil liberties & due process were completely ignored, 300,000-50,000 were arrested without warrant & tried without jury/appeal.


Before 3rd phase, Robespierre was executed by fellow Committee members; Thermidorian reaction began (antiradical backlash attempting to restore order & normality to France). New constitution was written, gave most political power to the Directory (a governmental power). New constitution was less democratic & Directory was only moderate/conservative in politics. Tried to heal wounds caused by Reign of Terror, but middle-of-road politics were unpopular & was overthrown in 1799, ending French Revolution.


After French Revolution was rule of Napoleon Bonaparte (1799-1815, a talented general who served in armies of French Revolution & gained reputation of national hero; was in coup that overthrew Directory, tremendous popularity & political skills allowed him to become sole leader of France). He claimed to follow ideals of French Revolution, but in reality created a dictatorship stronger & more efficient than past French kings (was crowned emperor of France in 1804). During reign, was arrogant & autocratic, with little respect for democracy/constitutional rule, had wars that lasted for many years & cost a lot & killed millions. However, he modernized France: creating institutions that still exist today (Bank of France & Napoleonic Codeà still foundation for modern French law). Until 1812, his wars made France rich & powerful; gained national fame in 1790s, had successful campaigns in Egypt & Italy; chief enemies were Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, & Russia. 1805-1811, won series of wars that made France the most powerful nation in Europe (only major nations not under his influence were Britain & Russia).


Napoleons Downfall: inability to counter Britain's naval power, long guerilla war in Spain & Portugal, & failed invasion of Russia (1812). Defeated in 1814, escaped in 1815 & made attempt to return to power; foiled by British & Prussians led by Duke of Wellington (English general) at Battle of Waterloo; died in 1821. After Napoleon's defeat, conservative political order settled over Europe largely due to Congress of Vienna (1814-1815, peace settlement, redrew map of Europe, esp. in Poland, eastern Europe, & Italian peninsula; also decided not to allow German/Italian states to unifyà partly caused by greed & self-interest, but also with strategy & long-term peace, sought to achieve balance of power in Europe)


In Britain, progress towards a more participatory gov. was slow & voting was restricted to aristocratic & upper middle class (5% of population), even though Parliament had more power than king. Lower classes then started agitating for more political rights & economic protections. Gov. eventually granted requests to avoid revolt instead of revolution through violence; 1st Reform Act (1832) widened suffrage slightly, but did much to improve districting & general operation of voting system.


In France, 1815, parliamentary monarchy (of Louis XVI's family) came back; French then became restless under royal rule & overthrew monarchy (1830). New king came to throne; was concerned with public opinion. 1830-1848: little progress was made toward making French legislature more representative.


Central & eastern Europe tended to remain more repressive: little/no widening of political representation; Austria's emperor was advised by Metternich (architect of reaction & Congress System), Prussia developed a law-based state in which the king shared power with a legislature & was subject to constitutional guidelines, king exercised great authority & Prussia remained militaristic & authoritarian for years. In Russia, tsar continued to be powerful (were no meaningful legal checks on tsar's authority)


Revolution of 1848: massive disturbance, shook almost every European country, partly caused by: popular impatience with over 30 yrs of reactionary rule, social & economic effects of Industrial Revolution, growing strength of nationalism, & long series of economic downfalls & bad harvests (ex: Irish Potato Famine). Only nations that remained immune to revolution were Britain (was flexible & liberal enough to keep people from feeling need to revolt) & Russia (punished liberals & radicals so harshly that revolting was considered too dangerous). Revolution broke out in Prussia, Austria, & many German & Italian states. Areas ruled by Austria (ex: Czech Bohemia, Croatia, & Hungary), nationalist sentiment combine with political


activism caused more revolts. Russia lent arms & troops to Austria & several German states to help in stopping revolt; by 1848/1849, rulers who were toppled briefly came back into power; but revolution still had benefits: compelled rulers of Prussia & Austria to grant certain constitutional reforms, demonstrated increasing importance of nationalism in European politics, laid groundwork for unifications of Germany & Italy later on, & demonstrated to rulers throughout Europe that at least some of political, economic, & social demands of ordinary people had to met/listened to & taken seriously


Britain & France: developed democratic forms of gov. (meaningful vote for all males). Britain, during reign of Queen Victoria, had 2 major parties of Parliament: Conservatives & Liberals; were more willingly to extend vote to middle & lower classes: took many years, was accomplished by 2nd (1867) & 3rd (1885) Reform Acts (all adult males could vote in parliamentary elections). However, reforms did not cover everything: economic tensions among aristocracy still trying to retain old privileges, growing middle class, enormous working class (constantly striving for political equality & economic justice) & growing political power of lower classes. Labor party replaced Liberals as anti-Conservative party in 1900s.


In France, after losing Franco-Prussian war under president Louis Napoleon (not as dictatorial as Bonaparte, helped industrialize & modernize France), president was deposed. After 1871, France was a democratic republic, but did not solve all problems: 4th Republic was rocked many times by corruption & financial scandal, & Dreyfus Affair (Jewish officer wrongly accused of selling military secrets to Germany) showed anti-Semitism in societyà kept divisions in left (believed Dreyfus was innocent) & right (believed Dreyfus was guilty)


Italy & Germany unified (1860s-70s); were examples of the growing power of popular will, guided by nationalism, rather than desire for greater democracy. In both, unification was brought about by war & diplomatic intrigue (prime movers of Italian unifications: Camillo Cavour & Giuseppe Garibaldi). Under Victor Emmanuel II, Italy became constitutional monarchy. German unification was spearheaded by Prussia (defeated Austria in 1864 in war for leadership of German states), led by Otto von Bismarck. Germany united in victory over France in Franco-Prussian War. Prussia's king (Wilhelm I) became kaiser of new German Reich (empire).


Austria, New Germany, & Russia were more conservative than the West, but still moved away from traditional autocracy. In 1848 Revolution, Austrian archconservative Metternich was driven out; in 1861 emperor Franz Josef agreed to create an elected parliament & share power. Also made concessions with Czechs, Poles, Slovaks, Croats, Serbs, Italians, Hungarians, etc. it ruled. Pressures of nationality were very strong, & Austria had hard time containing the desires of many minorities for greater autonomy. In 1867, largest minority (Hungarians) forced Austrian gov. to grant them equal status within empire; Augsleich ("compromise") turned Austria into Austro-Hungarian Empire.


Russia: remained most autocratic; had no constitution, & no elected body which the tsar shared power (until 1905). Sweeping change came to Russia after defeat in Crimean War (1853-1856); tsar Alexander II (moderate liberal) attempted to modernize with series of Great Reformsà emancipation of serfs in 1861 ended one of the most morally reprehensible & economically damaging institutions in Russian history. Also lightened censorship, reformed legal system, widened powers of local gov, & considered granting Russia a constitution. Alexander II was killed by radical terrorists (1881); tsars after him were extremely conservative (esp. last tsar, Nicholas II, 1894-1917)à abandoned his reforms, did best to undo as many of them as possible. Uprisings in 1905 caused Nicholas II to create & share power with Duma (an elected, semi-parliamentary body; was weak, & tsar took every opportunity to avoid cooperating with it)


Industrialization gave rise to capitalism & classical economics (laissez-faire, iron law of wages, socialism, Marxism, Communism). Also led to middle class demanding more political rights, & also created working-class radicalism (socialism, communism, even anarchism). Lower classes & workers created trade unions (Labor Party)


Industrialization also causes Europeans to want to expand (imperialism), taking other countries for profit (raw materials, markets). Steam engines made travel easier & faster, new medicine increased survival rate. People also wanted to seek fortunes oversees, causing some to new colonies; some also wanted to "civilize" & saw it as "White man's burden" to educate people of other countries.


Middle East & North Africa: In 1683, Ottoman Turks fail at capturing Vienna & counterattacked by a Christian force; lost a lot of European territory; also fought with Russia (1700s, Peter & Catherine the Great). Also partly caused by mediocre rulers & gov corruption (Janissaries tried stopping reform). Tanzimat Reforms (1839-1876), Ottomans tried to Westernize & secularize (Western education principles, scientific knowledge, & technological expertise were taught by Western professors) & Janissaries were subdued; also emphasized greater religious tolerance, legal system reform, Western-style schools, establishment of national telegraph & postal systems, etc); also gave women greater access to education, & women began to enter public life more. However, Tanzimat Reforms alienated conservatives & traditionalists.


After Napoleonic Wars (1800s), Serbia revolted (1807, failed but caused restlessness), Greece had war of independence (1821, with help of Britain & France)


Eastern Question: what the European power should do about decline of Ottoman Empire; British & French stopped Turkish/Albanian Egyptian leader, Muhammad Ali, from expanding more; also stopped Russia (tsar Nicholas I) & fought with it, defeating it in its conquest for warm-water ports (Crimean War). Construction of Suez Canal made Egypt more valuable; French & eventually British had many shares in it.


Balkan Crisis (1876-1878): Montenegro, Romania, Bulgaria, & Serbia rose up against Ottoman rule, Russia defeats Turks in 1878 & imposed harsh treaty; the rest of Europe intervened in treaty (Congress of Berlin, 1878à German chancellor Otto von Bismarck presided over meeting, Montenegro, Romania, Bulgaria, & Serbia gain independence, but rest of Europe participated in land-grabbing for own desires


Young Turks, led by Enver Pasha, get rid of sultan & seized control of empire in 1908 & established parliamentary government; modernized military, aligned themselves with Germany, & began series of social, economic, & political reforms


During 1700s, Ottoman Empire's grip was already starting to weaken from distance away from African/European territories; in 1st Balkan War of 1912, Ottomans were defeated by Balkans (Serbia, Greece, & Bulgaria). Gained some losses back in 2nd Balkan War (1913). During WWI, Turkish gov joined German & Austrian side, but were defeated by Allies (1918àOttoman Empire collapseàMiddle Eastern possession stripped away by Britain & France or rebelled. Empire was replaced by modern Turkish state in 1920. Western N African territory fell into European imperialism (AlgeriaàFrench, MoroccoàFrench & Spanish)


In Persia, Safavid Empire fell (1700s) because of Russian taking territory (Caucuses, Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan). Armenia & Georgia had asked for help from Russia (both were Eastern Orthodox). During Qajar Dynasty (1794-1925), British & Russians partition Persia


Russians took active part in taking Middle East (for warm water ports, cotton, nationalistic pride, strategic policyàRussians feared long, open, southern frontier). Russians take Tashkent, Samarkand, Bukhara. Khiva, & Khokand, all the way to Afghan border. Were in "Great Game" with Britain (espionage, diplomatic intrigue; saw each other as rivals)


East Asia: During Qing Dynasty (peak at 1700s; emperors: Kangxi, 1662-1722, & Qianlong, 1736-1795 were last competent rulers of dynasty; under them, borders of China were defended, empire's far-flung regions were under control, economic growth improved, art& learning was sponsored). After those emperors, China weakened from steep decline in quality of leadership, corruption in gov, & costs of maintaining land borders along north & west were burdensome, economy worsened (population growth was too rapid); popular discontent with Qing gov & bad conditions caused revolt (ex: White Lotus Rebellion, 1796-1804, was difficult for authorities to suppress)


Gov officials try to stop opium trade (caused farmers, etc workers to be idle, causing less production, leading to bad economy). Chinese protested (when navy blockaded Canton in 1839, sparked 1st Opium War (1839-1842); Chinese lost, had to sign Treaty of Nankingà gave Hong Kong to British, had to open up 5 more ports to foreigners, lower tariffs on British goods, & extraterritoriality (British law prevailed, not Chinese); aka Unequal Treaties) Weakening of China allowed Britain, France, Russia, Italy, & Japan to have spheres of influence in it (Open Door Policy, to prevent any European country from taking too much of China)


Taiping Rebellion: led by heterodox-Christian Hong Xiquan (1850-1864); was a civil war that claimed 20-30 million lives, attracted many supporters in modern army, tried to overthrow Qing gov (people resented high taxes, arbitrary & oppressive rule, & Qing emperors were Manchu (not Chineseà foreign) Took over major city of Nanjing (1860); was stopped by foreign generals working for Qing gov & inner quarrels.


Empress Cixi: "ruled" Qing Dynasty (used nephew Guangzu as puppet); was against reform, even allowed Tibet, Gobi Desert, Mongolia, & Chinese Turkestan to be taken before allowing reform (when Guangzu tried Hundred Day's Reform, she punished him & executed officials who convinced him to reform); eventually reformed, but was too late (Japan took Shandong Peninsula & Tsingtao after defeating them in Sino-Japanese War, 1894-95). Foreign control continued.


Sun Yat-Sen: Western-educated, led nationalists in China while in US; favored Westernization & reform, formed Chinese Republic (1912) & Nationalist Party (Guomingdang, eventually got handed to Chiang Kai-Shek)


In Japan, Tokugawa Shogunate tried isolating itself, but people still knew about advances of Westerners; from 1700s-1800s, modernized partially (economically & socially). Was already a society of cities, agricultures was rationalized (fewer people could grow more food), boosted urbanization, & created labor force to accelerate proto-industrialization (phase in industrialization that preceded & created conditions for establishment of full industrialized societies). Samurais, afraid to lose power, formed Sat-Cho alliance (Satsuma & Chosu) to advocate severance of ties with west; failed. Japanese realized that to avoid domination by West, they had to modernize & adopt Western learning, economics, & military methods. Feudalism was abolished, hereditary privileges of samurai were eliminated, rigid social hierarchy of Tokugawa Shogunate ended (Civil Code of 1898à little improvement in women's rights, Diet (parliament) was created, little improvement in suffrage (due to property qualifications & voting restrictions); created an oligarchy less oppressive than Tokugawa Shogunate.


South Asia: Mughal Empire Decline (1700s) by development of independent kingdoms/city-states (1500s-1600s). Most Dutch & Portuguese colonies were handed over to British/French. British East India then controlled India (not British crown). Amount of territory ruled by British increased by: allowing Indian to collect own taxes (many cheated off own people & under British gained right to seize peasant lands, which was not allowed in old laws; also caused agricultural crisis in 1770s). Used Indians in Sepoy armies (more efficient, less costly) & used some regional princes as "puppets" to control Indians (also efficient & required less force from British; princes ruled under British ruleà British Raj). Major cities (Bombay, Calcutta) were governed directly; in some parts of interior, Indians were governed indirectly. Overall, British were less harsh than other European imperialists


While tightening grip on India in 1800s, Britain also made advances into Malay Peninsula (originally controlled by Portuguese & Dutch, most territory got handed to British). In exchange for giving up claims on territory in Indonesian archipelago, British were allowed by Dutch to take Malay Peninsulaà rich in rubber, tin, oil, copper, iron, & aluminum ore (bauxite). In 1819, British also had outpost in Singapore (on tip of peninsula, became extremely important trading center & key naval baseà Hong Kong, India)


Frenchàtried to take Indochina (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia; only Thailand was not taken over by British/French, used as buffer zone). 1857-1859, French pressured Vietnam's Nguyen dynasty to accept foreign rule) La mission civilisatriceà had more emphasis on converting religion than British did, also brought modern science & technology to Indochina.


US takes Philippines during Spanish-American War (1898); also believed in White Man's Burden (obligation to educate & civilize "savages")


South America: Haitian Rebellion (1791-1804): people of different races (blacks, Europeans, etc) & classes joined together to overthrow French rule (under Napoleon Bonaparte). Toussaint L'Ouverture ("Black Washington") freed all slaves in French Haiti by 1789, also crossed into Spanish Santo Domingo & liberated blacks there. However, French Revolution in 1789 threw French Haiti into chaos (white colonists & freed blacks often competed over sugar economy & quarreled). French troops failed to retake Haiti because of yellow fever & unused to fighting in tropical conditions (Napoleon then decided to relinquish all American territories, making Louisiana Purchase with Thomas Jefferson)


When Napoleon invaded Spain & Portugal (1807-09), threw colonies into chaos; colonists felt resentment towards rulers & rigid social hierarchies prevented them from realizing their goal of upward social & economic mobility. Sudden blows to Spanish & Portuguese monarchies caused independence movements.


Simon Bolivar (1783-1803): member of creole upper class in Venezuela, inspired by Enlightenment ideals, frustrated by inefficiency & injustice of Spanish rule, & was personally ambitious. 1810: took control of independence movements in Venezuela, Colombia, Bolivia, & Ecuador; unlike other upper-class men, realized that people of all classes had to unite to succeed; promised to fight for rights of mixed-race & emancipation of slaves (successful). Joined forces with Jose de San Martin (general turned revolutionary), who began uprising in 1816 & by 1820, freed Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, & Paraguay. San Martin was more conservative than Bolivar, but agreed that Bolivar would be leader; by 1824-25, Bolivar cleared all Spanish loyalist forces out of Bolivia, Ecuador, & Peru (Spanish S America was freed)


When Brazil started agitating for independence, Prince Pedro (son of King of Portugal, made regent of Brazil by his father; Portuguese royal family fled to Brazil during Napoleon invasion) proclaimed independence; constitutional monarchy was formed, with Pedro as king (1822)


Mexico & Central America waged wars of independence (1810-23); first, priest Miguel Hidalgo led revolution in Mexico (1810-11), then Jose Morelos (1811-15); both were killed by own upper-class members who also wanted independence, but not equal rights. Revolution was carried out by elite, not lower-class.


Spanish retained only its Caribbean island colonies, until 1898 (had to give up Cuba, Puerto Rico, etc to US)


North America & Caribbean: American Revolution (1775-1783): Resulted from growing sense of patriotism & national identity (war of independence from Britain), increased resentment of British economic mastery over colonies (having to pay taxes for British army in America), desire of the merchant middle class to become wealthier, & influence of Enlightenment thinking (Locke, Montesquieu, Voltaire).


After Americans won American Revolution, formed a democratic government (federal gov shared powers with govs in each state). 3 Branches: Executive, Legislative, Judicialàprevented one branch from gaining too much power. Was a democracy, but did not include women, Native Americans, & slaves in votes.


Canada was given dominion (has its own constitution & parliament) status by British, afraid that they could ally with US. John Macdonald led Canadian freedom movement; Canada was inspired by American Revolution. Upper Canada (Ontario) & Lower (Quebec) joined together to form United Provinces of Canada (1840); armed uprisings took place 1837-38. Became self-governing (London passed British North American Act, 1867, to confer dominion status to Canada.


Economic (Trade, Commodities Produced, Labor Systems, Social Hierarchies, agricultural v industrial, rural v urban)


Sub Saharan Africa: Slaves were traded for European guns; more gunsà more violence & death in tribal wars. Also traded slaves for textiles, alcohol, etc. After abolition of slave trade, Africans were still forced to work for Europeans (in mines for diamonds, farms, etc; also had to carry passes). Chiefs were also forced to make payments to European power. After end of slave trade, Africans had to export less lucrative products (palm oil, peanuts, animal hides)


Although slave trade was abolished by most countries (except Spain & Portugal, in Cuba & Brazil) because of economic, political, & moral factors, Arab Muslims still continued trade in Zanzibar (E Africa) until it was stopped by Europeans in 1888.


Europe: Russia fought in Crimean War, needed warm water ports for trade. In France & other places with revolution, economy was horrible.


New inventions in 1800s: machine power (steam engine), cotton gin, transportation, electricity (light), iron techniques, medical advances (vaccines, germ theory) flying shuttle, spinning jennyà led to great industrialization, more factories, child labor, labor unions, cheaper products, urbanization, gradual rise in level of prosperity & population, gave women more chances to work. In Europe, iron, coal, steel, cotton production, & RR building were measures of industrial growth; west was quickly growing, Russia & Austrian Empire, not as much. Southern Italy remained agricultural.


Industrialization gave rise to capitalism & classical economics (laissez-faire, iron law of wages, socialism, Marxism, Communism).


Middle East & North Africa: Suez Canal was very valuable; British & French held many shares in it; was very costly


East Asia: Before 1830s, China had few ports open to Europeans (Macaoàcolonized by Portugal centuries before, Canton, etc.) Imported few things from Europeans, exported tea, silk, & porcelain to them (high balance of trade). Western ambassadors tried to convince Qing emperors to open up more trading centersà declined, because were unaware of how advanced West wasà Opium trade (caused Chinese to become addicted, was something that Europeans could sell to China)à officials try to stop opium trade (caused farmers, etc workers to be idle, causing less production, leading to bad economy).


Japan was already rural, but semi-modernization caused agriculture to decrease; merchant & middle class increased, trade & commerce became more important (opening of Japan's ports, Commodore Perry)


From industrialization & economic modernization: new railroads, steamships, ports & canals were built; many Japanese were sent overseas to learn Western engineering, economics, & military science; Ministry of Industry (1870) & states banks gave financial backing; huge state-sponsored corporations (zaibatsu) were created; private enterprise spurred growth of middle class; became famous for trading tea, silk, weaponry, ships, & sake. Also had conditions in factories similar to those in Europe during Industrial Revolution (bad working conditions, illegal hours)


South Asia: Britain takes spices & cotton from Britain, manufactured products, & sold it back to India; caused decline of economy; British also used Indians as tax collectors (inappropriately seized lands from fellow peasant Indian for own profit, were corrupt)


Malay Peninsulaà rich in rubber, tin, oil, copper, iron, & aluminum ore (bauxite). In 1819, British also had outpost in Singapore (on tip of peninsula, became extremely important trading center & key naval baseà Hong Kong, India)


South America: Latin America was economically backwards because it was mainly used for raw materials (silver, sugar, cotton) by Spain & Portugal. Also required large amount of slaves for labor (abolition of slavery was trouble). Profits were also not diversified (mainly benefitted elite); labor was carried out by large numbers of poor peasants & workers. Economies were also slow to modernize & industrialize. There was also foreign influence over Latin America (US took plenty of Mexican territory in warsà Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, & California were taken away in Texas Rebellion (1830s) & Mexican-American War (1846-48). In 1860s, Napoleon III of France also tried installing a Habsburg emperor (Maximilian) in Mexico. Slavery also persisted until 1890s. US also took part of Panama for Panama Canal in 1900s, & formed Pan-American Union (1889) to promote cooperation among Latin American nations. US also gained parts of Latin America in Spanish-American War, placing Cuba & Puerto Rico under US protection.


North America & Caribbean: Slavery became less profitable (Eli Whitney's cotton gin & steam-driven machines required less workers), & ended also partly because of American civil war. US also industrialized, eventually surpassing Europe.


Religious (Religions, Leaders, Beliefs, Syncretism, Interactions, effects on politics and economy, persecution)


Sub Saharan Africa: Christian (Ethiopia), Muslim, animist. Arabs traded slaves after the West agreed to ban slavery; missionaries & other Western institutions attempt to stop slave market/trade


Europe: British also had problem of whether Ireland should be set free & if so, if the north (divided between Catholic & Protestant) remain in British/Irish hands. Before Revolution, during Louis XVI's rule, Catholic Church took part in politics.


Middle East & North Africa: Muslim, some Christian, Jewish, Zoroastrians


East Asia: Missionary activity increased as China fell more into European hands & missionaries saw more opportunities


In Japan there was State Shintoism (revival of Shintoism, believed emperor had divine powers)


South Asia: In India, Hindus & Muslims still fought each other, even in Sepoy armies; Sepoy Mutiny (1857-58), both religious would not cooperate & were defeated easily by British. In Indochina, French were more active than British in India in religious conversions


South America: Catholic (from Spanish/Portuguese missionaries/past conquistadors)


North America & Caribbean: Christian (Puritan, Protestant, etc)


Military (technology, wars, leaders, conquests, rise and fall of empires)


Sub Saharan Africa: African states that cooperated with Europeans in slave trade (Benin, Oyo, Dahomey, Kongo, & Ashanti) helped enslave fellow Africans; violence against Europeans (Boers vs. Zulu, Ashanti vs. British, French, & US attempts to destroy salve trade) caused Europeans to take more violent/militaristic actions against Africans. Tribes fighting each other in costly civil wars weakened each other, making them vulnerable to Western imperialism.


Maji Maji (1905-07, German East Africa)à Africans try rebelling against Germans (were desperate), failed, & many were brutally killed


Dutch Boers displacing Zulus caused Zulus to turn to violence. Germans then assist Dutch, ruthlessly killing many Africans. Boers were also fighting British (Germans helped Boers), worsening German relations with British. Many Boers & Africans were placed into concentration camps by British, causing outrage.


Fashoda Incident: British & French soldiers fight over borders in Africa.


Europe: After French Revolution was rule of Napoleon Bonaparte (1799-1815, a talented general who served in armies of French Revolution & gained reputation of national hero; was in coup that overthrew Directory, tremendous popularity & political skills allowed him to become sole leader of France). He claimed to follow ideals of French Revolution, but in reality created a dictatorship stronger & more efficient than past French kings (was crowned emperor of France in 1804). During reign, was arrogant & autocratic, with little respect for democracy/constitutional rule, had wars that lasted for many years & cost a lot & killed millions. However, he modernized France: creating institutions that still exist today (Bank of France & Napoleonic Codeà still foundation for modern French law). Until 1812, his wars made France rich & powerful; gained national fame in 1790s, had successful campaigns in Egypt & Italy; chief enemies were Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, & Russia. 1805-1811, won series of wars that made France the most powerful nation in Europe (only major nations not under his influence were Britain & Russia).


Middle East & North Africa: Ottoman Empire faced many wars (vs. Russia in Crimean War, Greek war of independence, Balkan Wars, WWI) & lost a lot of its territories to Europe. Balkan Crisis (1876-1878): Montenegro, Romania, Bulgaria, & Serbia rose up against Ottoman rule, Russia defeats Turks in 1878 & imposed harsh treaty; the rest of Europe intervened in treaty (Congress of Berlin, 1878à German chancellor Otto von Bismarck presided over meeting, Montenegro, Romania, Bulgaria, & Serbia gain independence, but rest of Europe participated in land-grabbing for own desires


Young Turks, led by Enver Pasha, get rid of sultan & seized control of empire in 1908 & established parliamentary government; modernized military, aligned themselves with Germany, & began series of social, economic, & political reforms


During 1700s, Ottoman Empire's grip was already starting to weaken from distance away from African/European territories; in 1st Balkan War of 1912, Ottomans were defeated by Balkans (Serbia, Greece, & Bulgaria). Gained some losses back in 2nd Balkan War (1913). During WWI, Turkish gov joined German & Austrian side, but were defeated by Allies (1918àOttoman Empire collapseàMiddle Eastern possession stripped away by Britain & France or rebelled. Empire was replaced by modern Turkish state in 1920. Western N African territory fell into European imperialism (AlgeriaàFrench, MoroccoàFrench & Spanish)


In Persia, Safavid Empire fell (1700s) because of Russian taking territory (Caucuses, Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan). Armenia & Georgia had asked for help from Russia (both were Eastern Orthodox). During Qajar Dynasty (1794-1925), British & Russians partition Persia


Russians took active part in taking Middle East (for warm water ports, cotton, nationalistic pride, strategic policyàRussians feared long, open, southern frontier). Russians take Tashkent, Samarkand, Bukhara. Khiva, & Khokand, all the way to Afghan border. Were in "Great Game" with Britain (espionage, diplomatic intrigue; saw each other as rivals)


East Asia: When Chinese navy blockaded Canton in 1839, sparked 1st Opium War (1839-1842); Chinese lost, had to sign Treaty of Nankingà gave Hong Kong to British, had to open up 5 more ports to foreigners, lower tariffs on British goods, & extraterritoriality (British law prevailed, not Chinese); aka Unequal Treaties) Weakening of China allowed Britain, France, Russia, Italy, & Japan to have spheres of influence in it (Open Door Policy, to prevent any European country from taking too much of China


Japan took Shandong Peninsula & Tsingtao after defeating them in Sino-Japanese War, 1894-95


Boxer Rebellion (1900): kung-fu experts ("boxers") tried getting rid of foreigners in foreign-owned regions (exp. their capital, Beijing); was eventually stopped by foreign troops, foreign communities burned down Chinese temples as revenge & forced Qing gov to pay heavy financial penalty


Japanese samurais lost powerà used old weapons (swords) & had status; with modernization, merchants & middle class had increasing power. After modernization, Japan was able to take territory from China (Korea, Taiwan, Okinawa Islands). Even won in Russo-Japanese war (1904-05), shocking Europeans. Launched surprise attack on Russian Pacific Naval base Port Arthur (Japan had advantage because of distance from Manchuria, & Russia had to send troops by Trans-Siberian RR). Japan's sphere of influence was recognized by Russian is Southern Manchuria.


South Asia: "Black Hole of Calcutta"àIndian officials in 1750s jail British population of Bengal in underground prisons; was pretext for British to take military action (Battle of Plassey, 1757à British victory; Mughal Empire had to give military & economic concessions).


Sepoys (Indian soldiers) were used by British to control Indians; Sepoy Mutiny (1857-58; Hindus feared rumors of going overseasà breaking Brahmin caste; Hindus & Muslims were wary of rumors of gun cartridges being greased with pig/cow fat): Hindus & Muslims still unable to unite & form solid leadership against British.


US takes Philippines during Spanish-American War (1898); also believed in White Man's Burden (obligation to educate & civilize "savages"). At first, Filipinos thought US would liberate them from Spanish rule; however, were brought under US rule & then tried rebelling (Emilio Aguinaldo, 1901, used guerilla warfare in jungles to try to resist US takeover).


South America: US took plenty of Mexican territory in warsà Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, & California were taken away in Texas Rebellion (1830s) & Mexican-American War (1846-48). In 1860s, Napoleon III of France also tried installing a Habsburg emperor (Maximilian) in Mexico. Slavery also persisted until 1890s. US also took part of Panama for Panama Canal in 1900s, & formed Pan-American Union (1889) to promote cooperation among Latin American nations. US also gained parts of Latin America in Spanish-American War, placing Cuba & Puerto Rico under US protection.


In Latin American independence movements (excepting Brazil), people had to overcome class differences to succeed in gaining independence from Spain. Most revolutions were led by elite.


North America & Caribbean: American Revolution: used guerilla tactics & other tactics unfamiliar to the British army; were also assisted by other European countries, esp. France. (only few Americans were pro-British: "Tories"). At first, were poorly trained (Battle of Lexington & Concord: 1775, led by George Washington). After defeating British at Saratoga (1777), France (Britain's mortal enemy) lent military & naval assistance to US. War ended when British commander-in-chief (Lord Cornwallis) surrendered at Yorktown, 1781. Slavery was not outlawed until 1800s. US Constitution: one of the most successful political documents in world history, most of its general ideas came from Britain & France (Enlightenment ideas, France's Declaration of the Rights of Man & the Citizen). Also had a tremendous impact on the rest of the world's revolutions.


Social (treatment of women, art, literature, writing systems, music, dance, marriage, family)


Sub Saharan Africa: Africans were treated poorly by Europeans; Europeans felt they were obligated to "civilize" Africans (White Man's Burden). Male Africans in Kimberly, S Africa were forced to work in diamond mines; women were discouraged from running family businesses/selling goods in markets, had to stay behind with children in villages/reserves. Colonial officials who introduced property rights stated that only males could inherit property, not women; women were left to grow food for family to survive & care for sick/aged; some turned to prostitution (being away from husbands too long/needed to make a livingà increase in transfer of STDs). Racist feelings increased in S Africa with Africans working for Europeans.


Europe: Jews, Protestants, & blacks were not granted "liberty, fraternity, & equality" or voting rights during the French Revolution. Mary Wollstonecraft writes about women's rights (Declaration of the Rights of Women). In 19th century, women continued to remain inferior to men inside & outside family. In middle-class Victorian England, women were supposed to have "virtues" of submissiveness, piety, domesticity, modesty & femininity. Feminists argued that women were individuals also, & had different strengths & should be permitted to develop without social restrictions. Early on, women focused on reforming family & divorce laws to allow them to own property & file for divorce; did not gain rights until 1870 (Britain), 1900 (Germany), & 1907 (France). However, also wanted to campaign for other things, like temperance, slavery abolition, improving schools, & helping the poor. Also sought higher education & jobs for women (beyond domestic servitude). Also wanted suffrage, outlaw alcohol, & institute child welfare & labor reforms.


New artistic style: Romanticism & Realism; New theories: Darwin's theory of evolution (did much to erode faith & encouraged a more secular view in the West)


New art styles: Symbolism, Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Expressionism, Cubism, & abstraction


19th century also had scientific thought & great optimism; Scientist: Einstein, Freud, Newton


Middle East & North Africa: Women had more educational opportunities & took bigger part in society; more equality for non-Muslims


East Asia: In China, missionaries tried to get rid of foot-binding. Several people were Christian, Buddhist, Daoist, etc


In Japan, power was taken from daimyo & transferred to emperor Meiji (Meiji Restoration restored power of emperor after thousands of years of daimyo rule). Samurai also lost hereditary privileges, women were still in secondary status (little change). Old elite still had power, but access to political positions became increasingly dependent on exam systems; regional rule was handed over to emperor. Although farmer population decreased, taxes increased; many people were merchants/middle class. Lower class were barred from political participation by Meiji Restoration, but were now able to take part in military (originally banned from serving); people also adopted Western dress, fashion, & manners


South Asia: British believed they were civilized & superior, needing to convert Indians to Christianity/educate/civilize them (Rudyard Kiplingà White Man's Burden). Positive effects: railroads, telegraph systems, postal service; Western education (science, technology, civil service exams, not all were religiously intolerant, banned customs (sati, sacrifices to goddess Kali), lifted harsh treatment of untouchables, reduced sectarian strife (Hindus vs. Muslims), & Western education exposed them to radical/liberal ideas (knowledge to start agitations for freedomàGandhi, Nehru)


South America: In Latin America, even after wars of independence, there was still racism & prejudice against those of lower class/mix/color. Profits usually benefitted only the elite, gap between rich & poor remained/grew even wider. Women eventually did gain extended rights (education) in Argentina, Uruguay, & Chile (in Chile, could even earn medical degrees). In Argentina, Brazil, Chile, etc., immigration from Asia & Europe swelled & diversified populations, adding to diverse social & ethnic mix.


North America & Caribbean: In America, after winning the American Revolution, the democratic republic did not include women, Native Americans, & slaves (no vote). America's achievements: inspired freedom (Latin America, Haiti), increased sphere of influence (Monroe Doctrine, 1823; US sphere of influence, Europeans were warned against interfering in Latin America), expanded (Thomas Jefferson agreed to Louisiana Purchase, 1803, from Napoleon), slavery (continued, even though it was illegal), industrial growth (South's cottonà raw materials), immigration (from Europe, Africa)

Towards Today 1914–PresentEdit

Political (Governments, Laws, Empires, Leaders, Political Philosophies, Ruling Bureaucracies and the means of staffing them, treatment of minority people)


Sub Saharan Africa: East Africa had apartheid: political & racial system under white rule. Whites had 90% of best land; Africans had to live on reserves; most of them lived on white land as laborers, had to carry passes; caused Sharpesville Massacreà led by Nelson Mandelaà led African National Congress (modeled after INC), jailed 1963-1990, had armed guerilla force (bombed gov. buildings & power plants), believed violence is necessary against oppressors. This violence reinforced the idea that Africans were savage without whites. Jomo Kenyatta: jailed before Mau Mau uprising by UK, made 1st president of independent Kenya. Leader of Ghana: Kwame Nkrumah: 1st independent African ruler (1957), chose non-alignment (like Nehru), overthrown by US-backed coup while away at China (1966). Patrice Lumumba: non-aligned, 1st president of Congo (independent from Belgium), Western-educated & democratically elected; US felt he was too close to USSR, killed by CIA-backed Mobuto Seseseko ~ military dictator, renamed Congo to Zaire (1960s to increase nationalism; also invented traditional "African" style to increase nationalism; stole from people, corrupt, excuse was that at least he was better than Leopold)


Europe: East Germanyà Communist, Westà non-Communist; supplies were flown into West Germany by US. Many East European countries had Communist revolutions: Yugoslavia, Greece, Italy

In Russia, Stalin dies 1953, Khrushchev takes over (rival of JFK). Gives de-Stalinization speech (makes Communists in satellites think change would happen, but it didn't). Matyas Rakosi: Soviet-backed, Hungarian communist dictator. Imre Nagy: reform-minded Hungarian reform leader, got rid of secret police.

Prague Spring: Alexander Pubcek~ reform-minded Communist in Czechslovakia, sparks movement in Hungary; wanted voting rights & industrialization (for consumers, not military)

Middle East & North Africa: Egypt lost importance to UK after UK lost India (India was not buying as much from Britain). Gamal Abdel Nasser- Egyptian president, leader of Pan-Arabism (all Arab (Muslim) countries unite, seized Suez Canal from Britain, non-aligned, attempted to unite Syria & was supported by them (others were allied with US); also supported by Soviets (allied, but non-aligned). Baghdad Pact- US allies with Iran, Iraq, Jordon, Kuwait, Turkey. Britain draws borders to divide people (like in Africa & India) ex: Kuwait was tiny, but had oil; shahs did not want to share oil with other shahs. like Vargas & Peron, Nasser used populism; gained support from poor through land distribution (gave away land from rich Egyptians/British; can own 100 acres max), free education, & guaranteed gov. jobs (however, most studied law & became lawyers, so was a job problem). Arab Socialism (similar to Nehru's & Latin American socialism)à outlawed any party (Wafd, Communist); Nasser becomes dictator. After his death, Sadat allies Egypt with US. Unlike Nasser (left Muslim organizations in place), Ataturk obsessed with Westernizing & secularizing (changed weekends, clothes, veils, alphabet). Nasser, Sadatà 2 dictators in Egypt history (3 total; no elections, opponents were arrested). Muslim Brotherhood: was popular, but illegal; opposed the only party in Egypt, wanted to create a more Islamic (Sharia) law.

Mohammed Mosaddeq: nationalist prime minister of Iran, nationalized foreign oil companies like Anglo-Persian (seemed Communist to US, but was not). Overthrown by Reza Shah, who had military on his side. Pahlavi Dynasty (secularization/Western style (clothes, etc.), but kept royalty (Shahs)): 2 Shahsà Reza Shah & Mohammed Reza Shah. Was corrupt & stole money from poor, oil workers, peasants, & religious leaders. White Revolution: Iranian land reform; cannot own more than 2 villages; expanded education. Was successful, because Iran had money & resources


Nasser's Successes

Nasser's Failures

Education reform

Cannot have economy (was weak)

Land reform

Did not have market & competition; weak & bad-quality products, as a result

Government jobs

No heavy industry

Suez Canal capture

Cannot defeat Israel; as a result, cannot create a United Arab Republic

Soviet gave him arms

Aswan High Dam worked short-term, caused environmental damage, was not safe (meltdowns, had to build walls around it to block radiation

Rid of British & French

Built Aswan High Damàsolved electrical needs


East Asia: In China, Mao used peasant power & guerilla warfare (hid in countryside & mountains; Long March). Established collective farms, used propaganda for many failed schemes (Great Leap forward- similar to 5-yr plans- & backyard factories- decreased worth of metal.) Simplified Chinese, kicked out foreigners (Britain, Japan), worked for Chinese independence. Mao was pro-poor, Shek was pro-business. Had militaristic government (tanks, factories). Tried to portray himself as "among" peasants. Crops grown by China were exchanged for tech & caused famine. In Cultural Revolution, Buddhism & Confucian ideas were denounced by Red Guard members; authority figures & Western-educated people were humiliated publicly, executed, or fled.


Something similar to Cultural Revolution occurred in Cambodia under Pol Pot, with Khmer Rogues.


In Korea, US tried to take down Kim-Il Sung (1948-1994, put there by Russians, not devoted/fighting against Japanese at the start; not an indigenous rebel), but Korea split into Communist North, Capitalist South, & Demilitarized Zone. Synghman Rhee appointed military dictator of South Korea by US. Borders constantly pushed back & forth until establishment of Demilitarized Zone. UN fought Korea (Russia boycotted UN, so could not make decisions in it). Successors of South Korea were considered more corruptà stole money, cruel dictatorship; but still made it prosperous (car industry)


Indonesia was Democratic, but non-aligned. Sukarno- led independence movement against Japanese & Dutch, 1st president of Indonesia, held conference at Bandung for all non-aligned countries. US feared he was too close to China (which didn't want to be with Russia anymore). Communist Party of Indonesia: participated in elections & had government ministries, largest Communist power in any non-Communist state. Suharto- military dictator that US replaced for Sukarno; US-friendly.

In Vietnam, after Japanese were driven out, France tried to reassert authority, but were defeated at Dien Bien Phu by Viet Minh, 1954. Ho Chi Minh- present at Versailles, Vietnam was denied self-determination, fought Japanese at WWII with US help, leader of Vietnamese Communists, aka Viet Minh, NLF, Viet Cong. Geneva Conference (1954): split Vietnam into North & South. Ngo Dien Diem: leader of South Vietnam, backed by US, was Christian-Catholic; Buddhists & Communists opposed him. Geneva accords: held after French defeat, Viet Cong leaves South Vietnam, US agrees to national election (but were never held).

South Asia: 3rd world India had bad economy due to resource drain from Britain under Nehru. Import Substitute Industrialization~ make products, not buy them from other countries; Tata was given money to make steel works to not be in debt with US/Europe (made bad cars; had no competition/"invisible hand of the economy"). Nehru~ not socialist, just a rationalist trying to develop an economy Pros of Being Non-Aligned like Indiaà not have to commit to one side (US/USSR), gave India bargaining room; India was democratic (more choices & freedom), had other parties besides INC (like Hindu nationalist party)

Muslim league~ originally supported Gandhi, but leader Jinnah demanded Indian split, creating Muslim Pakistan. Originally tried uniting with Congress Party against Britain, since Britain was threatening to destroy the caliphate (Muslim head ruler); however, caliphate was destroyed by Ataturk in an attempt to nationalize Turkey

Although India had Gandhi & was democratic, there was still tensions between Hindus & Muslims (ghost trains & other revenge killings) South America: Chileà oldest democracy in S. America (had Christian democrat & Socialist party). Allende: democratically-elected president of Chile, took over US copper mines in Chileà nationalism, money for schools, hospitals, etc… US believes everything should be laissez-faire, kills him. Augosto Pinochet- US- supported, pro-capitalist Chilean dictator; killed political opponents (accidentally kills 4 Spanish citizens)


Hugo Chavez- ruled Venezuela, which had oil.

1914: Construction of Panama Canal (Banana Republicsà Honduras, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Belize; unstable economy because of too much reliance on too few crops (especially bananas); owned by United Fruit Co.

Guatemala (under president Arbenz) tried taking United Fruit (to nationalize), but failed; replaced by US-supported Somosa

Sandinistas: Communist rebel groups of Nicaragua (FSLN) that tried to overthrow Somosa. Took power in 1979, fought US-supported Contras (contra-Communism) in 1980s. Led by Manuel Ortega (president), allied with Cuba, did not nationalize all industry, funded education & health (US saw this as Communist, & were afraid Communism would spread to nearby places, like El Salvador). Influenced revolutionary movements in the rest of Central America, esp. El Salvador & Honduras). Ronald Reagan: supported Contras. US embargos Nicaragua & sponsors Contra-war

Noriega of Panama: US ally, drug-running policies (to earn money for Contras, US at first supported this) eventually embarrass US, disposed by CIA; killed innocent people (even toddlers) to make point against Communists (like in El Mazote). Archbishop Oscar Romero spoke out against Noriega, killed by pro-US El Salvador military followers

North America & Caribbean: US Had policy of Containment, believed in Domino Theory (Russians are trying to turn other countries Communists). US tries continually to look good so others would support them instead of Russia ("bad guy"). USSR & US did not actually attack each other in Cold War (Cuban Missile Crisis)

1930s: Trujillo in Haiti, price of sugar fell, US feared he made bad image (genocides) & killed him.

Fulgencio Batista- US-supported, anti-Communist Cuban dictator (corrupt, killed political opponents). 1930s: Lazaro Cardenez: populist, head of PRI, nationalized oil. 1968 Olympics: Mexican student protest against PRI, were shot by police (Dirty War). Zapatistas- used violence, Mexican guerilla movement. Vicente Fox- CEO of Coco-Cola Mexico, 1st president to get rid of PRI. Bolivarian Revolutionary Movement: Fox's party, showed he wanted change & independence from US economical control


Economic (Trade, Commodities Produced, Labor Systems, Social Hierarchies, agricultural v industrial, rural v urban)


Sub Saharan Africa: Was poor, had corrupt leaders, needed an industry (to export)


Europe: Economic boom, immigrants came from former European colonies/East Europe to West Europe, women had increased power & opportunities, more farmers moved to cities. New consumer goods were produced (TV, hula hoops)


Middle East & North Africa: Discovery of oil led to Anglo-Persia oil companyà British owned reserves of oil because weak Shah allowed them to


East Asia: In China, Mao's backyard factories decreased worth of metal; crops grown were exchanged for tech & caused famine. Korea prospers from car industry under Kim Il-Sung, even though he was corrupt.


4 Asian Tigers: Taiwan, S. Korea, Singapore, Japan (prospered through US help)


South Asia: India tried Import Substitute Industrialization make products, not buy them from other countries; Tata was given money to make steel works to not be in debt with US/Europe (made bad cars; had no competition/"invisible hand of the economy")


South America: Traded with US; United Fruit Co.


North America & Caribbean: US put embargo on Cuba; NAFTA- North American trade alliance


Religious (Religions, Leaders, Beliefs, Syncretism, Interactions, effects on politics and economy, persecution)


Sub Saharan Africa: Christian, animist, Muslim


Europe: Christian, Catholic


Middle East & North Africa: Muslim, animist. Palestine- in middle of Arabic world, was insult because it was Jewish


East Asia: In China & Cambodia, old beliefs (Confucianism, Legalism, Daoism, Buddhism) were denounced; ancient relics & temples were destroyed. In Vietnam, were Buddhist, Hindu, & Muslim.


South Asia: Muslim league~ originally supported Gandhi, but leader Jinnah demanded Indian split, creating Muslim Pakistan. Originally tried uniting with Congress Party against Britain, since Britain was threatening to destroy the caliphate (Muslim head ruler); however, caliphate was already destroyed by Ataturk in an attempt to nationalize Turkey.

There was still tensions between Hindus & Muslims (ghost trains & other revenge killings)


South America: Christian (Catholic); Catholic Church was conservative


North America & Caribbean: Christian, anti-Communism


Military (technology, wars, leaders, conquests, rise and fall of empires)


Sub Saharan Africa: Mau Mau (1950s): Freedom fighters for Kenya; led by Dedan Kimathi (fought for UK in WWII, killed white settlers, but more black collaborators; used guerilla tactics, similar to Maroons (freed slaves) of Caribbean). British restricted Mau Mau movement by burning villages & moving people to concentration camps; were supported by anti-Mau, black collaborators & enemy tribes (Actually worked, but British realized they cannot completely control Kenya; put Kenya in charge; feeling of paternalism failing & paranoia of black uprisings from numbers). Ghana (same name as old, Trans-Saharan kingdom; attempt to boost nationalism); had few Muslims, originally called Gold Coast. Had many military coups.


Europe: Stalin's satellites: (East Europe, China, South Korea) were Russia's buffer zones against enemies. Warsaw Pact- defense pact among European Communist countries.

When USSR invades Hungary, Hungarians start questioning whether they should support USSR; starts revolutions, but was defeated (like in Poland's solidarity movement~ movement of trade unions, challenged Soviet gov.) Russia & other Warsaw Pact signers invade Hungary

Middle East & North Africa: In North Africa: Battle of Algiers: Arabs attempt to push out French settlers; created paranoia & distrust, had rights limited, put in concentration camps. French troops patrol city for FLN members (West had lost credibility in Cold War, attempted to assert power of colonies). FLN~ Algerian independence movement, used guerilla tactics, bombed French civilians, led by Ben Bella (later president of Nigeria). Britain, France, & Israel try seizing Suez Canal from Egypt (funded by French, built by Egyptians; was key to British (link to India) before India gained independence). 1947-1949: Israel fought Egypt (who had USSR support); Israel wins, becomes independent state. 1957: Israel takes Sinai peninsula & Suez Canal


East Asia: China had militaristic government (tanks, factories, tech received in exchange of crops). Also had Red Guard. Cambodia had Khmer Rogues; fought against US, Pol Pot eventually killed by Viet Cong.


US hires Indonesian army to kill Communists (gave them list of names, army killed more people than number on list; many army members were Muslim-led militia) to avoid bad image. Indonesia was close to Vietnam (US was fighting in Vietnam War); could ally with Vietnam, so US took drastic action & killed them, not regarding them as people ("zapped" them). Suharto- military dictator that US replaced for Sukarno; US-friendly.

In Vietnam, after Japanese were driven out, France tried to reassert authority, but were defeated at Dien Bien Phu by Viet Minh, 1954. South keeps bombing North, which does nothing against them. Gulf of Tanking Incident (1964)- US blockade North, claiming that they attacked US ships; used as excuse to start Vietnam War. Chu Chi Tunnels- NLF lived underground, had almost everything there. . US used napalm, defoliants, etc. to smoke them out; had adverse effects on environment (killed forest) & men (US soldiers, people who drank water). US also placed Vietnamese into strategic hamlets to keep an eye on them (similar to concentration camps); in free-fire zones, US were free to attack anyone outside the zone; once wiped out an entire village. Tet Offensive: Viet Cong attacks every S. Vietnamese village on Vietnamese lunar new year (Tet); takes US by surprise. Commandos raids US embassy in Saigon (causes US to leave). Walter Cronkite announces that war was not winnable, shocking the US. US loses, partly through mountainous/jungle terrain, nationalism & Communism unite people, & Vietnamese had Chinese help (weapons)

South Asia: Hindu/Muslim conflicts; Nehru was non-aligned


South America:


North America & Caribbean: Fidel Castro- led guerilla attack on Cuba's Moncada barracks (1953); exiled to Mexico & met with freelance revolutionary Che Guevara (Argentine-born Castro officer, killed by CIA in Bolivia, 1968). Granma: Castro + 82 rebels take boat from Mexico to Cuba (1956), hid in Sierra Maestras. Cuban Revolution: successful, Castro & rebels go from mountains to cities, Batista flees Cuba, Castro in charge. US places embargo on Cuba after Castro nationalized US companies in Cuba & has military dictatorship; has to unwillingly side with USSR (Cuban Missile Crisis, USSR & US at brinkmanship). JFK then agrees to leave Castro alone, takes out missiles in Turkey. Bavarism- taking guns into jungles & fighting (guerilla) tactic; only works if a moron is in power


Social (treatment of women, art, literature, writing systems, music, dance, marriage, family)


Sub Saharan Africa: East Africa had apartheid: political & racial system under white rule. Whites had 90% of best land; Africans had to live on reserves; most of them lived on white land as laborers, had to carry passes. People were divided by language, tribe, & way of living (agricultural vs. pastoral)


Europe: TVà new entertainment system, women have more opportunities & control over life, families become smaller.


In France, students protest agitated against Vietnam; youthful riot. Also originally protested for co-ed dorms (led by "Danny the Red"); eventually protested about Vietnam. French police did not actually shoot them (unlike Mexican Olympics/Prague Spring protest against socialism); used tear-gas grenades.


Major Changes in Western Europe

· economic boomà consumers brought more things; hula hoops, bikinis, microwaves…

· expanded higher educationà more female workers & job opportunities, lower birth rates

· Sexual Revolutionà women have more control over their lives, more focused on work

· end of Fascism in Portugal & Spain

· immigration from poor countries to Englandà larger population, less job opportunities; still had racism & religious prejudice

· TV (new media)


Middle East & North Africa:


East Asia: In China, people suspected of being pro-Western/capitalist were humiliated, looked down upon, & killed. Mao was seen as good, factory workers & Red Guard seen as good, education decayed. Women had better positions (some joined Red Guard), writing was simplified, literature & art decayed/destroyed (except for Mao propaganda & Little Red Books of Communist quotes).


In Vietnam, many Chinese immigrated there because of Opium Wars. Ho Chi Minh trail: Southern Vietnamese escape to North because of corruption


South Asia: Most women still had poor treatment (even though Indira Gandhi was president at one point); Hindu vs. Muslims in religious conflicts; overpopulated, many still illiterate


South America: Panama Canalà workers had to face malaria; Panamanian Africans & American contract laborers built canal

North America & Caribbean: 1968 Olympics: Mexican student protest against PRI, were shot by police (Dirty War).


Unfamiliar Terms: Unit 1Edit

· Neolithic Age: Stone age


· Sargon of Akkad- Akkadian emperor famous for conquests of Sumerian city-states (2400-2300 BCE)


· Umma- ancient Sumerian city


· Zheng He (Muslim Chinese admiral who commanded a series of expeditions in the Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf, & Red Sea)


· Single Whip Tax (have to pay in silver only; too much silver from trade)


· Kiev (city near an important trade route in Russia)


· Dneiper (river used for trade in Russia)


· Valdimir (ruler of Kiev, converted to Christianity)


· Mehmed the Conquerer (Ottoman Sultan responsible for Fall of Constantinople & destruction of Byzantium


· Seljuk Turks (Central Asian nomadic invaders, were staunch Sunnis & went through Persia)


· Osman (early Turkish leader)


· Suleyman the Magnificent (one of the most successful sultans of the Ottoman Empire, built Suleymaniye (a great mosque)


· Sassanid Empire (Persian Empires; Achemenid (rival of Greece)à Sassanid (Silk Road)à Safavid (16th-18th century, Ottomans)


· Satrap- governors of provinces in Achemenid Empire


· Darius the Great- 3rd king of kings in Achemenid Empire


· Pericles- a great orator, influential statesman, & general of Athens during Peloponnesian & Persian Wars


· Paul of Tarsus- one of the first Greeks to convert to Christianity


· St. Augustine- a Romanized Berber (person from the Nile); was a philosoplger & theologian. Believed that the grace of Christ was indispensible to human freedom & framed concepts of original sin & just war


· Nestorian- church of the East (Mesopotamia & Persia)


· Caesaropapism- the idea of combining the power of secular government with/making it superior to the spiritual authority of the Christian Church (In extreme cases, king (Caesar) is pope)


· Prince Vladimir- prince of Kievm converted to Christianity in late 900s


· Bhakti movement- Hindu movement in which main spiritual practice is loving devotion among Vaishnava saints


· linga- an aniconic representation of Hindu deity Shiva


· Dwoh (Arab sailing vessels with lateen sails; strongly influenced by European ships


· Ulema- a community of legal scholars of Islam & the Sharia


· Bartholomew Dias (Portuguese explorer, 1st to sail around Africa)


· Akbar the Great (grandson of Babur (started Mughal dynasty), son of Hamuyan (Delhi Sultanate: Baburà Hamuyanà Akbar)


· Great Zimbabwe (one of several stone settlement complexes; served as royal court of Southeast Africa)


· Omani Arabs (Arabs from Oman & Persian Gulf; were attracted by trade opportunities in East African Coast & settled there)


· Batavia (Dutch fortress located on island of Java in Malaysia after 1620)


· Pizarro (attacked & divided Incan Empire, killing Atahualpa)


· Peninsularesà CreolesàMestizoà Mulattosà Natives


· Syncretism (combination of cultural elements, sometimes result of significant contact between cultures)


· peons (landless laboring class in Spanish America)


· Mita system (Natives have to work on state projects ex: Church construction, road-building, mining, agriculture. Were paid little & abused by local officials


· Repartimiento (colonial forced labor system imposed on Natives of Spanish America & Phillipines)


· Encomienda (Grants of Native laborers to individual Spaniards) & Haciendas (Spanish plantations in which Natives worked)


· Rene Descartes (established importance of a skeptical review of all received wisdom; argued that human reason could help develop laws that would explain the fundamental workings of nature)


· John Calvin (16th century French protestant; believed in predestination)


· Henry VIII (set up Anglican Church to marry more than once to have a son)


· theocracy (religion-based government)


· deism (concept of God during Scientific Revolution; stated that God's role was to set laws of nature in motion, not control it.


· Missi dominici- "envoys of the rulers/lords", officials commissioned by the Frankish king/emperor to supervise the administration (mainly of justice) in parts of his dominions


· Clovis I- 1st king of the Franks to unite all Frankish tribes under one ruler


· Charles Martel- Frankish political & military leader


· Tang Taizong- son of Emperor Li Yuan (ruler of Tang Dynasty, overthrew Song); ruled Tang Dynasty after him


· Dunhuang- major city stop along the Silk Road ==

Unit 2==


· James I (King of England during Golden Age of Elizabethan drama & literature, 1566-1625)


· Charles I (defeated Muslims by exhausting them, confined them to Spain)


· Charles II (aka Charlemagne/Charles the Great circa 800s-900s, Carolingian (royal family of France) monarch who established in Franc & Germany


· English Civil War (featured religious disputes mixed with constitutional issues concerning monarch power; ended with Restoration of monarchy & execution of previous king


· Stoics (Hellenistic group of philosophers, emphasized inner moral independence cultivated by strict discipline of body & material world)s


· Liberty, Equality, Fraternityà French Revolution slogan


· Maximilien Robespierre (revolutionary ideologue, impassioned by new philosophies & headed persecution of Louis XVI. Sponsored Terror & worked to centralize government. Shied away from significant social reforms that might have drawn urban support & was convinced he knew the people's will. Was eventually abandoned, arrested, & killed by followers.


· Cuadillos (independent leaders who dominated local areas by force & sometimes seized the national government itself)


· Jose de San Martin (military leader in southern South America who helped fight for independence


· Gran Colombia (new nation, until 1830, made up of Venezuela, Colombia, & Ecuador. Political differences & regional interests led to break up. ==

Unit 3==


· Birmingham & Manchester- factory centers in England


· Quakers- Christians who frowned upon slavery


· William Wilberforce- headed anti-slavery movement in Parliament


· Thomas Clarkson- also disapproved of slavery


· Samuel Sharpe- a layman Baptist preacher


· Maroons- people from W. Africa brought as slaves to Surinam (Dutch plantation & Jamaican colony)


· Granville Sharpe- saw a slave-holder from W. Indies in England; sued slave-holder, freed slave, & gave demonstrations about cruelty of slavery


· Abolition of the Slave Trade: caused by religious (William Wilberforce & Quakers), & (Rousseau & Locke) reasons


· immediatism- immediate abolition of slavery


· colonization- sending slaves back to Africa


· Sierra Leone- slave colony next to Liberia


· Chartist Movement attempt by artisans & workers in Britain to gain right to vote during 1840s; demands for reform beyond Reform Bill of 1832 were incorporated into a series of failed petitions


· Peterloo Massacre- killing of traders & workers by soldiers


· Luddites- people who signed the Chartist Movement


· Frederich Engles- son of a German manufacturer, had strong conscience, & city experiences, wrote about poor conditions of working class (1844)


· Robert Owen- an Utopian socialist


· Madras & Bombay: part of SE India, 2 important trading centers, were part of British territory


· Siege of Lucknow: takeover of Lucknow without regional prince's death\


· Lin Zexu: spoke out against Opium WaràTreaty of Nanking


· Taiping Rebellion: rebelled against British in China, led by Christian-deluded Hong Xiquan


· Manchus- invaded China, started Qing Dynasty, but kept Confucian ideas & civil service exams


· Crimean War- (1854-1856) Russians fought Ottoman Empire (supported by Britain & France) over Crimean Sea area (warm water ports)


· Lajos Kossuth- led Hungarian nationalism


· Reichstag- German Parliament


· Otto von Bismarck- "Iron Chancellor"


· Red Shirts- an army to assist king of Piedmont (most industrialized Italian city, united by Piedmont's King)


· Camillo di Cavour- bourgeois businessman, wanted to unite Italy under bourgeois rule


· Ivan III- 1st Russian tsar to unite Russians


· Alexander II- emancipated serfs (same time US & Brazil abolished slavery); after Crimean War, was convinced that Russia needed economic change to keep place in military


· Sino-Japanese War: over control of Korea ==

Unit 4==


· ED Morel- muck-raker, exposed evils of rubber industry


· Berlin Conference- division of Africaà Scramble for Africa


· Liberia- African country formed by free slaves


· Battle of Adowa: Ethiopian victory over invading Italians


· Menelik II- "Prester John", legendary Christian king far away from Europe; actually Ethiopian king


· Herbert Spencer: father of Social Darwinism


· Monroe Doctrine (1823)- US warned against European colonizing/interfering in Americas


· Chinese Dynasties: XiaàShangàZhouàQinàShiàHanàTangàSongàSuiàYuanàMingàQing


· Dowager Empress- Cixi, empress of Qing dynasty; did nothing to stop Chinese from revolting against Europeans; used as scapegoat by nationalists & Communists


· Warring States Period- many warring states, before Zhou & after Qin; aristocrats controlled regions of land


· Confucianism's 5 Relationships: Junzi, Ren, Li, Xiao (filial piety)


· Legalism- rivaled Daoism; early Qin- late Han


· Lao Tzu- spread Daoism


· Tao Te Ching- founder of Daoism


· Han Wudi- founded Han Dynasty, was a peasant who became emperor


· Sui Dynastyà construction of Grand Canal, Tangà Buddhist persecution, Dowager Empress Cixi, Korean conquest, SongàNeo-Confucianism


· Chinese Republicà Communist China


· Sun Yat-sen led 1911 Revolution against British; was overseas


· Shandong Province- captured by Japanese in WWI, when Japan allied with Britain & attacked German colonies in China


· Kamakura period- when the Minamoto family (rival of Tairas) had capital at Kamakura


· Heian period- when the imperial Japanese capital shifted to Heian


· Armenians- Turks disliked Armenians, who were Christian & supported Russia in WWI (Turks supported Germany)


· Kurds- ethnic group exploited by Turks


· genocide- Turks killed millions of Armenians, many fled to Egypt & Russia


· Ataturk- tried pushing Egyptians & British out of Turkey, launched revolt to purge Islam of impurities, Westernized, led Young Turks


· Persiaà Iran


· Persian Wars- Persia (Achemenid Empire) vs. Greeks


· Darius- Persian king who vowed revenge on Athens & Eretria for burning Persian regional capital (Sardis)


· Ejido System- land distribution to poor & natives


· Modero- moderate democratic reformer in Mexico, proposed moderate reforms in 1910; arrested boy


· Porforio Diaz, demanded sweeping land reforms


· Pancho Villa & Emiliano Zapata: overthrew Diaz


· Porforio Diaz- dominated Mexico for 35 yrs, imposed strong central gov


· Balkan Wars- Balkan leaders wanted more territory & keep rivals from advancing at their own expense


· Serbia- located below Austria-Hungary, was backed by Russia to stop Austria-Hungary from advancing


· Triple Alliance: (Central Powers) Germany, Italy, Austria-Hungary


· Triple Entente- France, England, & Russia


· Causes of WWI- ethnic division, territory, keeping ahead of rivals, resignation to war, inept diplomancy


· Bloody Sunday- people asking for more bread rations were shot


· Duma- Parliament of Russia


· Nicholas II- tsar who sent poorly trained & armed peasants up against German machine guns; sparked mutinies & peasant revolts, weakened tsar power


· Karensky- Russian revolutionary leader, wanted genuine parliamentary rule, religious & other reforms, political & legal changes


· February Revolutionà overthrow of tsar Nicholas II


· provisional government: short-lived administration body that sought to govern Russia after tsar's overthrow


· Bolsheviks- overthrew provisional government; led by Lenin, were the Communists


· Land, Bread Peaceà what the Bolsheviks advocated


· Mensheviks- supported the provisional government, overthrown by Bolsheviks


· USSR: ethnic Russians dominated, Jews had little voice; was Communist


· Leninà believed "revolution should not come from literal mass action, but from tightly-organized cells whose leaders espoused a plan of action"


· Russian Civil War: Bolsheviks vs. Tsar & Aristocrats; Bolsheviks won


· Red Army- Communist army, even low classes limited by peasant status can reach fame & success; led by Leon Trotsky


· October revolution- expelled liberal leadership & brought power to radical Bolsheviks


· Petrograd Soviet- soviet (worker's council) in Petrograd (St. Petersburg)


· Brest-Litovsk Treaty- treaty between Soviet Russians & Central powers; Russia exits WWI; While the treaty was practically obsolete before the end of the year, it did provide some relief to Bolsheviks who were tied up in fighting the civil war and affirmed the independence of Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine, and Lithuania. In Poland, which was not mentioned in the treaty, its signing caused riots and protests, and the final withdrawal of any support for the Central Powers


· War Communism- the economic and political system that existed in the Soviet Russia during the Russian Civil War, from 1918 to 1921. According to Soviet historiography, this policy was adopted by the Bolsheviks with the aim of keeping towns and the Red Army supplied with weapons and food, in conditions in which all normal economic mechanisms and relations were being destroyed by the war.


· New Economic Policy- promised by Lenin to give peasant landowners & small business owners considerable freedom of action


· Big Fourà US, Britain, France, Russia


· Mandate system, Treat of Versailles, & Paris Peace Conferenceà demanded reparations from German


· 14 Points: speech delivered by United States President Woodrow Wilson to a joint session of Congress on January 8, 1918. The address was intended to assure the country that the Great War was being fought for a moral cause and for postwar peace in Europe ==

Unit 5==


· Black Shirts- Italian Fascist soldiers


· corporatism- emphasized organic nature of society & made state the mediator, advising interests of different social groups & appealed to conservatives in Europe, Latin America, & militaries


· Antonio Gramsci & Bienio Rosso: were part of the Italian Communist Party, were imprisoned by Mussolini for being Communist


· March on Rome- Black Shirts, marched to Piedmont, Italian king granted Mussolini & Fascists power


· Age of Anxiety- intense, 2-year period of unrest in Italy


· Reichstag Fire- German Parliament (Diet) was burned by a Communist


· Brown Shirts (SA)- Hitler supporters


· Weimar Republic- German gov, accepted Treaty of Versailles


· Enabling Act- gave Nazis dictatorial powers


· Kristallnacht- anti-Jewish pogrom


· Haile Selassie- last Ethiopian emperor


· Emperor Taisho- 123rd emperor of Japan, predecessor of Hirohito


· Kita Ikki- a socialist philosopher


· Emperor Hirohito- emperor during Rape of Nanking


· Social Realism- workers & scientists working together & on equal terms


· Joseph Stalinà Great Purges, show trials (Assassination of Kirov), 5-yr Plans, gulags


· Fall of Singapore: Japanese invades Singapore (between Indonesia & China)


· Subhas Chandra Bose- opposite of Gandhi; against Britain, sided with Japanese


· Causes for US Bombing Japan: showing the world US strength, testing the bomb, quickly ending WWII, reducing American casualties


· Hiroshima & Nagasaki were bombed; Uramaki Cathedralà Nagasaki ==

Unit 6==


· Truman Doctrine (1947): US helps countries to resist Communism


· Park Chung Hee: military general who seized power after Rhee until assassination


· Kwangju Massacre (1980): Student protest in S. Korea against corrupt gov; thousands killed


· Indian Independence: caused by nationalism (challenged Britain), Indian National Congress, & Gandhi's mass movements


· Assassination of Gandhi: killed because a Hindu extremist believed he was too nice to Muslims


· Pakistan: Divided into East (Bangladesh) & West; East had more foreign earnings, West had more gov jobs


· Rabindranath Tagore: Bengali poet, playwright, & author, wrote about senseless trench-slaughter in Europe, WWII


· Desmond Tutu: apartheid activist in Anglican Church


· Idi Amin: dictator of Uganda in 1970s, used Indian immigrants as scapegoats & took their property


· Julius Nyerere: Tanzanian politician, served as 1st President of Tanzania; "World Hero of Social Justice"


· Frantz Fanon: psychiatrist, philosopher, revolutionary, & author from Martinique; influential in field of post-colonial studies & the pre-eminent writer of 20th century decolonization & psychopathology of colonization.


· Prague Spring: failed Communist resistance in Hungary


· Ibn Saud: religious leader, supported oil workers & poor, opposed Shah


· Charles De Gaulle: French general & statesman, controlled all French colonies (Vietnam, Algeria, etc)


· Daniel Cohn-Bendit- Danny the Red


· French General Strike- strike action, appealed to ideologies of students & workers


· Irish Trouble (IRA): a period of ethno-political conflict in Northern Ireland which spilled over at various times into England, the Republic of Ireland, and mainland Europe. The principal issues at stake in the Troubles were the constitutional status of Northern Ireland and the relationship between the mainly-Protestant unionist and mainly-Catholic nationalist communities in Northern Ireland. The Troubles had both political and military (or paramilitary) dimensions. Its participants included politicians and political activists on both sides, republican and loyalist paramilitaries, and the security forces of the United Kingdom and of the Republic of Ireland.


· Zhou Enlai: first Premier of the People's Republic of China, serving from October 1949 until his death in January 1976. Zhou was instrumental in the Communist Party's rise to power, and subsequently in the development of the Chinese Communist economy and restructuring of Chinese society. A skilled and able diplomat, Zhou served as the Chinese foreign minister from 1949 to 1958. Advocating peaceful coexistence with the West, he participated in the 1954 Geneva Conference and helped orchestrate Richard Nixon's 1972 visit to China. Due to his expertise, Zhou was largely able to survive the purges of high-level Chinese Communist Party officials during the Cultural Revolution. His attempts at mitigating the Red Guards' damage and his efforts to protect others from their wrath made him immensely popular in the Revolution's later stages.


· Brezhnev Doctrine: This doctrine was announced to retroactively justify the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968 that ended the Prague Spring, along with earlier Soviet military interventions, such as the invasion of Hungary in 1956. These interventions were meant to put an end to democratic liberalization efforts and uprisings that had the potential to compromise Soviet hegemony inside the Eastern bloc, which was considered by the Soviets to be an essential defensive and strategic buffer in case hostilities with NATO were to break out. In practice, the policy meant that limited independence of communist parties was allowed. However, no country would be allowed to leave the Warsaw Pact, disturb a nation's communist party's monopoly on power, or in any way compromise the cohesiveness of the Eastern bloc. Implicit in this doctrine was that the leadership of the Soviet Union reserved, for itself, the right to define "socialism" and "capitalism".


· Sino–Soviet split: the gradual worsening of relations between the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) during the Cold War


· Dentent: "cooling", used by Yeltsin; opposite of Reagan's brinkmanship


· Salvador Allende: democratically-elected president of Chile; overthrown by US


· Augusto Pinochet: US-backed, Chilean dictator; overthrew Allende


· Sandinistas- guerilla army started by Sandino to improve lives of poor & end US occupation of Nicaragua


· Nicaraguan Revolution: Nicaraguans opposed US-Samosa dictatorship; US used Contras to fight Sandinistas


· Guatemalan Genocide: "Dirty War, "Guatemalan Civil Horror"


· El Salvadoran Revolution: guerilla-styled


· Zapatistas: violent Mexican guerilla movement

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